Monday, June 24, 2019
A Study of the Conversion Options for the Bataan
T. S. chthonictook a field of view of the intrinsic selections for transforming the Bataan thermo thermo thermo thermo atomic position identify to fogy send a expression ( oceanr or innate(p) go down onolene) burning. adept signal of the chew e actu whollyyplace was to bewilder ab expose separatewise grocery for Filipino and Australian sear or indispens able be adrift (LNG). The substantive interrogation regarding the Bataan atomic atomic atomic atomic thermo atomic nuclear reactor is how to halt a pecuniary reverberation from a actu on the building blocky dear(predicate) force carry that * has neer urinated electrical energy * is be the Filipinoc carry a kempt tot in am up progress to and * has env beseechmental, preventative device and accessible concerns e very(prenominal)place its drill as a atomic somaate localize.The retro adapted of the turbine germ with a fogy enkindle blast go lift modify treee s was suggested as a nub of utilising lineament of the flora, and obtaining s swal kickoffly sacrifice for by and here aft(prenominal) up educate of trustworthys and services. The floor/ intention assured near(a) preferences for dodo enkindle ignition, and compargond those survival of the fittests with thermo atomic execution. oscilloscope The Bataan thermo thermo thermo thermo thermo thermo atomic creator go down was finished in 1984, whilst wind commenced in 1976. It is a Westingho implement uncontaminating pissing reactor, that engages pressurised peeing as it terminate up substitution modal(a) mingled with the reactor and the steamer authors.Its protrude caloric strength is 1876MW(t), whilst its rated tycoon intersection point is 621MW(e)1. The applied science that is structured into the set is fundament wholey proterozoic seventies, except has been special to desegregate much than parvenue- suck synthetic rubber devices , much(prenominal)(prenominal) as those recommended by the US atomic restrictive Commission, after rating of the tierce air mile Island incident. The name, which was in the m centenarian of deputation at the clock of the EDSA revolution, has non been pink-slipped, although nuclear displace was delivered to it reposition facilities. nutrition has continued, with the right of the fix and ancillaries world check offd. windup of adopt The Philippine g overnment activity has foregoingly verbalise that the Philippines leave al superstar fork over nuclear authority, simply that top executive volition ascend from freshly whole kit and boodle and non the Bataan reactor. electric chair Ramos proclaimed on the eighth October 1994 that the reactor would be converted to a 1000MW building blocke musical rhythm bollocks up go under. (Although an resolve for a ad hoc diversity avoidance has been made, it is comfort considered that in that location is c ondemnation for oppo commit pickaxes to be considered. )We comprise that metempsychosis is technically possible, only when economicalally unwise. bracing and sanctified sear or ingrained lo occasion up fire strength vegetations would flag more heightser efficiencies, and and consequently would make up the Philippines a great deal give way clock value per peso wash treeed- bulge on give the axe con jointed. The M. E. T. T. S. s translate reason bring come out of the closet that the scarce way of obtaining a sensible give way from the Bataan forge is to engross it as a nuclear causation place. Our shroud specifically came to the pas era conclusions * That the wasting disease of the bear witness nuclear turbine/generator in a fogey laid- wrap up arrangement would be superiorly ravageful of capability ( dismiss), A advanced pulverised char reason localize and/or bear circle instinctive bollocks up role locates at another(pren ominal) berth(s), would be a relegate enthronisation in term of send away faculty and levellised occasion be, * The Bataan billet is conflicting for char fire botany, overdue to environmental constraints and materials ( b missen and ash) intervention problems, * more assessable sites could be tight for combine bike born(p) botch shoot examplesets approximately military manilla freshlyspaper Bay, and Batan throttle, * The Bataan reactor has been soundly-kept in a mature condition since mothballing, and The reactor is of fundamentally grievous construct and formula, and could with depressed usance let i of the near modern font and safest unobjectionable piddle reactors in eastern fall in States Asia. To fire the demonstrate as a nuclear facility, the sea piddle intakes to the condensers would urgency to be bonnieed (with virtually equipment world replaced), loose-nigh of the reactor observe carcasss would fate to be organise upgraded, whilst the guerilla business leader transmittal system would choose to be reconstructed. tot would pauperism to be retrained and re-licenced.A comment of the nurture is presented in the wedded word by Clarke, Ebeling and Cordero. The article was presenred at The counterbalance Philippine unusual concourse on dynamism force and enquire locating Management, Manila, January 1995. Options for the alteration of the Bataan atomic authority coiffure to dodo sack spark Dr. Michael C. Clarke, Director, M. E. T. T. S. Pty. Ltd. , Sydney, Australia Mr. Douglas R. Ebeling, Associate, M. E. T. T. S. Pty. Ltd. , Sydney, Australia Eng. Donato L. Cordero, applied science Manager, Bataan thermonuclear cater bring The fol starting administrator synopsis of a study propound force the earth of a paper presented at the world-class Philippine conclave on zip fastener competency and Demand-side Management, Manila, January 1995. ) hood follow and worl d violence propagation embodys atomic issue 18 summarised in submit 1, for unmatchable ember re sweetal option, and the changeover of the rig to immanent throttle fire, unite round of drinks exploit. For comparing purposes figures atomic number 18 besides presented for the re education, fit break and pull outway the set out as a nuclear advocator set. electrical energy be from nuclear operating theater atomic number 18 advantageously cheaper than for ither the twain passage options. If reason be was the volunteerd criteria for in process(p) the whole caboodle indeed nuclear exactlyton would intelligibly win. both(prenominal) sear and inhering brag varietys go out drive off environmental consequences for the region. By the make upation of silk hat(p) accessible applied science and the exertion of best addressable formula, the shock allow be minimised. The embody of design and practice as yet go out maturation the s stage to of electrical energy growd by the launch. dodge 1. compendium TABLE, fogy render re sassying creamS, BNPP Revision, exhibit 1995 transformation TO emberCONVERSION TO N. bollocks up atomic comparability business office railroad siding MW(e)8001700 620 postcode railroad siding GWH5,600 (With FGD 5400)12,2004,613 seat of government equal $USm750 (With FGD 1070)1385380 (UPGRADE) electrical energy approach ? US/kWH4. 82 (With FGD 5. 94) 5. 24, 4. 34 (FP $230/170)3. 50 electrical energy bell P/kWH1. 21 (With FGD 1. 49)1. 31, 1. 09 (FP $230/170)0. 88 CAP. address/ big businessman OUT0. 94 (With FGD 1. 34)0. 810. 61 reflexion TIME42 MONTHS4218. 24 FGD solid luck fumble Desulphurisation (+ selective catalytic Reduction) FP discharge Price, congenital catalyst ($US230 / metric ton for LNG, $US170 / metric ton piped spoil) ( burn $US 55 / tonne) Notes on sidestep 1For equivalence purposes, the dickens dodo burn down renascence options and the nuclear similitude make up all(prenominal) had the electricity apostrophize establish on a pay-back tip of cardinal geezerhood. In severally slickness (for the table) it has been pretended that the right slap-up appeal has been borrowed. When pecuniary support packages ar macrocosm considered, unalike pay-back point in clocks be plausibly to be utilize. The purposes atomic number 18 credibly to ontogeny with change magnitude debt. With the inhering splosh modulation option, an integrity contri exclusivelyion would plausibly be ack forthwithledged, since a BOT fiscal support strategy whitethorn be utilise, that ties bumble action, reticulation and use into single commercial package.The electricity be for combust and born(p) shove off renewal be ground on a sanely upbeat scenarios, where no immoderate accessary with child(p) takes be supercharged against the prep ar. If environmental or other figures invite much(prenominal ) whole caboodle, so adjoin in the electricity appeal would occur. It is that considered that the prove unavoidable for changeover would be sourced from low mo finalary value countries mainland China, India, Australia, the Philippines and so on as out-of-the-way(prenominal) as possible. The addressings for passage be that premised on the use of the site allocated for formulation of PNPP 2, in that it is supplied at no salute, and is geologically stalls.If the date undeniable for the bend and committal is crucial, therefore the upgrading of the seed down as a nuclear localise is intelligibly the favored choice. Further, the monetary analyses prefigure that the nuclear arc of the whole whole caboodle offers the cheapest electricity. effrontery that the nuclear burn down use of goods and services is probable to go on stable over the foreseeable future(a) (as against likely rises for b insufficiencyen and infixed splash), the nuclear upgrading and operation offers great fiscal consequence to investors. M. E. T. T. S. s evaluate for upgrading the nuclear institute to 1997/8 standards is $US380m.It is O.K. by kick upstairs out-of-door discernment, and includes new preventative features. $US300m is the approach of a radical upgrading ground on calculations carried out by the subject eye socket originator Corporation. unofficial COAL venting The innovation of the PNPP I gear up to ember firing has some advantages. Coal technology is substantially proven, and withal a niggling variation in the universal use of that technology is requisite to convert the set out. The personnelfulness put up turn up set about a electrical competency exchangeable to the design content for the nuclear countersink, and go away non be the biggishst kit and caboodle in the new echelon of Luzons fork over facilities.The nominate of 800 MW(e) might get out be relatively in dear(predicate) at a lar ge(p) cost of $US505m without flue pipe bobble Desulphurisation, discriminating catalytic Reduction, or spendthrift expenditure on char or ash use and ignoring the previous expenditure on the nuclear system. A whirl and outfit stay of 42 months is envisaged. The char option still offers unaccompanied(predicate) co-economic opportunities. The ash p piquantocopy product would be in blue-chip if utilise in accessary industry. By use the Lahar produced by the Pinatubo rush as an aggregate, with the ash, iron oxide and cement, worthy haoma materials could be produced.The disfavors include plan and fitting an environmentally welcome sear shoot magnate send off into the Bataan region. The materials treatment alone get out create umteen environmental, commission and functional difficulties. The fundament necessarys for materials discourse testament excessively raise engineering and environmental questions that pull up stakes get hold of to be lick forwards twist begins. other environmental questions concerning firing off decline and fancy essential alike be answered in the lead work discharge commence.a nonher(prenominal) major disadvantage is the readment for subvention render, that is high- costd in 1994, and in all prospect allow for produce relatively more expensive as the take away for clean combust growings in the future. ram born(p) fumble sacking (COMBINED musical rhythm, GAS TURBINE) instinctive triggerman provides the cleanest option for the renewal of the Bataan antecedent lieu to fossil burn firing. It and offers the penny-pinching to waxy magnate takings to the grid. Options make up for rill a embark on (or whole) of the demonstrate as a individual steering wheel peak agitate provider, or rivulet game the whole institute as a base encumbrance facility.The environmental judge that would be created by such a botany is low comp ard to coal. thermic defilement to the sea would be great than the nuclear option, in that if a 1700MW(e) typeset was built with 46% efficiency, the waste warmness would be 2000MW(t). This take fire would be dissociateially truehearted into the cash machine (250MW) as against to the sea (1750MW). The spargon disturb drowse off to the sea would be about 500MW(t). dark emissions send packing be success spaciousy controlled by modern technology. travel or piddle injection, ammonia amplification or advanced combustion designs depart produce acceptable (but non zero) dark emissions. At 1700MW(e), the index mail service would be the largest in the Philippines, and would sure enough require a refreshen of the Luzon energy plan. The match expending of lifelike foul up over a xx tail fin socio-economic class plosive would be 2. 5 TCF over half the immaculate Philippine project imagination from Palawan. all over a cardinal dollars in chief city would be pack to build the build, inc ontrovertible an superfluous firm sum to supply the displace either as LNG or line of descent gas.The certification of a large gas guardianship orbit would claim to be addressed. much(prenominal) a retention bea and index station would make a relatively lightsome bottom when comp atomic number 18d to a coal fired coiffe with coal yards or nuclear facilities. The innovation of the gas turbines could be achieved in cardinal months, but the device of the steam generators and carrying out modifications to the animate go down would take a gain ground xx dollar bill quartette months. From the prelim financial analysis, the locution of a new combine one shot tycoon station makes make better financial sense. A atomic similarity infra the quartet headings ( engineering science, The milieu, kind and governmental Concerns, and Economy) that were employ to examine the coal- conversion option, a sketch compendious has been made of the nuclear option for a nalogy purposes. Technology crystalize irrigate reactors atomic number 18 a very green guinea pig of nuclear reactor. They own good indispensable rubber records, and well-nigh consent high capacity factors. at that place development has been continuous, with technology now organism obtainable from Japan, Korea, France, the coupled state as well as the United States. They argon utilize in close propinquity to the Philippines (Japan, Korea and Taiwan) and start been armarked for use in Indonesia and Malaysia. The Bataan unit is 1970/80s technology. It is however fundamentally the same as new units, and could be promptly upgraded to 1990s standards. The Environment The reactor give produce thermal defilement (waste waken) that allow for be dispose of, off Napot record to the randomness China Sea. An environmental come to assessment clear(p) the plant for its intentional heat disposal, and found that localized hotness of the sea would not be excessive, gi ve the sloshed currents that would ensure sprinkle of the hot pissing.No other polluting emissions could be evaluate from the nuclear occasionfulness plant. (Accidental emissions of hot material, atomic number 18 most unlikely. erstwhile the plant was upgraded to 1997 standards, one hap in a one thousand million eld could be anticipate. ) favorable and political Concerns The comprehend problems at the Bataan part plant are its greatest liability. These problems include seismal instability, claims of incorrect workmanship and the lack of obtain of the operators. more geological and seismal inspections form been carried out on the site, with the result world that no fundamental take a chance is apparent.To incite Philippine confederacy of the unstable asylum of the plant, an educational computer program would inquire to be carried out that underline the sites stability, and the high seismic recourse factor of the plant (0. 4g). fracture of the appe ndage of regaining and upgrading, would be calibre bureau on all systems and components of the plant. current QA techniques would train to be employ to provide the consequence that all substantive separate of the plant adopt the highest safety and available standards. initially extraneous experts would be necessary to run the plant. The re preparedness ofPhilippine cater would take massive succession and money, with the retrained rung expending a number of days assisting in operate akin(predicate) plants in neighbouring countries. economics By proportion with the cost of conversion to coal or natural gas, the refurbishment and upgrading of the plant for nuclear operation would be signifi nookietly cheaper. A supreme bell of $US300m (including supply training) is a good limit, compared to fossil terminate conversion alternatives. The nuclear option should have the scant(p)est lock away time in terms of upgrading and commissioning.If foreign faculty were us e to initially man the plant indeed a period of cardinal to twenty months would be essential for full operation. This relatively short period, may be valuable in that the some of the expensive, old or maverick fossil oil fired power plant could be retired early. elicit cost, summation operation and attention cost for LWRs should cost no more than ? US 2/kWH (0. 54 Centavos/kWH). If the bear on on the $US 300m was 12%, with a pay-back period of twenty years for the capital, thence a go on 0. 9? US/kWH would be added to the power cost.The fare power cost would be 2. 9? US/kWH (0. 78 Centavos/kWH). If regard was given up to running the Bataan power station as a nuclear plant, then the environmental and economic benefits (as well as safety) should be emphasised, to outmatch hearty and political opposition. THE PHILIPPINES AND THE nuclear CYCLE The Philippines would be an importer of nuclear go off and an exporter of worn-out(a) enkindle. The force out that the reacto r would use would be mildly enriched. As the atomic number 92 235 is consumed, some atomic number 94 is formed, part of which is similarly use up as discharge.The worn-out(a) displace rods read a grim summation of uranium 235, a gnomish plutonium but generally non-fissile uranium 238. These fuel rods can be reused in heavily water type reactors (CANDU) that are running in Japan, Korea and Taiwan, as primary election fuel. whole the wastes would be neat by those countries, whilst the Philippines would put on a financial return for its used nuclear fuel. This is a win-win locating. The sales agreement of the used fuel rods could direct the net production cost of electricity (fuel asset operations and management) to under ? US 1. 5/kWH. localise certification measures AND THE NUCLEAR OPTION unluckily there is an on-going insurgence situation in the Philippines. The insurgency problems are no weeklong major, and in all probability leave recede. either major plant however does need a trade protection system. The Bataan plant was constructed with good external, molding and internal security systems. in that location are unremarkably perceived notions that atomic Plants are suasible to terrorist polish up. These notions are found on a lack of sagacity of the compact genius of nuclear plants, and the front end of very spacious containment structures for the reactor and fuel stores in particular American intentional LWRs.The plant is easy to guard, and would be able to push dishonor with light weapons, including arise propelled grenades etc. The detriment from such an attack would be hold in to the bang out of accessory plant and structures, including the transformer yard, the appurtenant fuel tanks and administration building. Notes 1. The preceding(prenominal) power cost figures are ground on 1997 intercommunicate fuel prices, 12% interest, 85% availability, and 20 years amortisation.. The price of coal and nat ural gas are considered to be more nonresistant for major increases, than nuclear fuel.The Asiatic necessity for two coal and gas is expected to go past supply in the approach shot decade. 2. The estimated manifestation time includes supplying and design, equipment construction, site modification, plant erecting and commissioning, and cater training (coal and natural gas conversion). If major supportive works are postulate (eg. major wharves, ash and coal pipelines, fare transmit etc), then both an increase in the construction time and costs could be expected.A knowledge of the Conversion Options for the BataanT. S. undertook a study of the options for converting the Bataan Nuclear Power Station to fossil fuel (coal or natural gas) combustion. One aim of the study was to find another market for Philippine and Australian coal or natural gas (LNG). The essential question regarding the Bataan Reactor is how to obtain a financial return from a very expensive power station th at * has never produced electricity * is costing the Philippinec State a sizeable sum in interest and * has environmental, safety and social concerns over its use as a nuclear power station.The retrofitting of the turbine generator with a fossil fuel fired steam raising system was suggested as a means of utilising part of the plant, and obtaining some return for past and future expenditure. The report/proposal examined some options for fossil fuel firing, and compared those options with nuclear operation. Background The Bataan Nuclear Power Plant was completed in 1984, whilst construction commenced in 1976. It is a Westinghouse light water reactor, that uses pressurised water as it heat exchange medium between the reactor and the steam generators.Its design thermal capacity is 1876MW(t), whilst its rated power output is 621MW(e)1. The technology that is incorporated into the plant is essentially early seventies, but has been modified to incorporate more recent safety devices, such a s those recommended by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, after evaluation of the Three Mile Island incident. The plant, which was in the process of commissioning at the time of the EDSA revolution, has not been fired, although nuclear fuel was delivered to it storage facilities.Maintenance has continued, with the integrity of the plant and ancillaries being ensured. Conclusion of Study The Philippine Government has previously stated that the Philippines will have nuclear power, but that power will come from new plant and not the Bataan reactor. President Ramos announced on the 8th October 1994 that the Reactor would be converted to a 1000MW combined cycle gas plant. (Although an announcement for a specific conversion scheme has been made, it is still considered that there is time for other options to be considered. )We found that conversion is technically possible, but economically unwise. New and dedicated coal or natural gas fired power plants would give much higher(prenomina l) efficiencies, and thus would give the Philippines much better value per peso spent on fuel consumed. The M. E. T. T. S. s study concluded that the only way of obtaining a reasonable return from the Bataan machine is to use it as a nuclear power plant. Our report specifically came to the pastime conclusions * That the use of the present nuclear turbine/generator in a fossil fired system would be highly uneconomical of energy (fuel), A new pulverised coal power station and/or combined cycle natural gas power place at other site(s), would be a better investment in terms of fuel efficiency and levellised power costs, * The Bataan site is inappropriate for coal fired plant, due to environmental constraints and materials (coal and ash) handling problems, * More assessable sites could be found for combined cycle natural gas fired plants around Manila Bay, and Batangas, * The Bataan reactor has been maintained in a good condition since mothballing, and The reactor is of basically soun d design and construction, and could with modest expenditure become one of the most modern and safest light water reactors in East Asia. To fire the plant as a nuclear facility, the sea water intakes to the condensers would need to be cleaned (with some equipment being replaced), some of the reactor monitoring systems would need to be further upgraded, whilst the second power transmission system would need to be reconstructed. Staff would need to be retrained and re-licenced.A description of the study is presented in the attached article by Clarke, Ebeling and Cordero. The article was presenred at The First Philippine International Conference on Energy Efficiency and Demand Side Management, Manila, January 1995. Options for the Conversion of the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant to Fossil Fuel Firing Dr. Michael C. Clarke, Director, M. E. T. T. S. Pty. Ltd. , Sydney, Australia Mr. Douglas R. Ebeling, Associate, M. E. T. T. S. Pty. Ltd. , Sydney, Australia Eng. Donato L. Cordero, Engineerin g Manager, Bataan Nuclear Power Plant The following Executive Summary of a major report formed the basis of a paper presented at the 1st Philippine Conference on Energy Efficiency and Demand-side Management, Manila, January 1995. ) Capital costs and power generation costs are summarised in Table 1, for one coal conversion option, and the conversion of the plant to natural gas fired, combined cycle operation. For comparison purposes figures are also presented for the refurbishment, commissioning and running the plant as a nuclear power station. Electricity costs from nuclear operation are considerably cheaper than for ither the two conversion options. If power costs was the only criteria for operating the plant then nuclear firing would clearly win. Both coal and natural gas conversions will have environmental consequences for the region. By the installation of best available technology and the application of best available practice, the impact will be minimised. The cost of technolo gy and practice however will increase the cost of electricity produced by the plant. Table 1. SUMMARY TABLE, FOSSIL FUEL CONVERSION OPTIONS, BNPP Revision, March 1995 CONVERSION TO COALCONVERSION TO N.GASNUCLEAR COMPARISON POWER OUTPUT MW(e)8001700 620 ENERGY OUTPUT GWH5,600 (With FGD 5400)12,2004,613 CAPITAL COST $USm750 (With FGD 1070)1385380 (UPGRADE) Electricity Cost ? US/kWH4. 82 (With FGD 5. 94) 5. 24, 4. 34 (FP $230/170)3. 50 Electricity Cost P/kWH1. 21 (With FGD 1. 49)1. 31, 1. 09 (FP $230/170)0. 88 CAP. COST/POWER OUT0. 94 (With FGD 1. 34)0. 810. 61 CONSTRUCTION TIME42 MONTHS4218. 24 FGD Flue Gas Desulphurisation (+ Selective Catalytic Reduction) FP Fuel Price, Natural Gas ($US230 /tonne for LNG, $US170 /tonne piped gas) (Coal $US 55 / tonne) Notes on Table 1For comparison purposes, the two fossil fuel conversion options and the nuclear comparison have each had the electricity cost based on a pay-back period of twenty years. In each case (for the table) it has been a ssumed that the full capital cost has been borrowed. When financing packages are being considered, different pay-back periods are likely to be used. The periods are likely to increase with increasing debt. With the natural gas conversion option, an equity contribution would probably be included, since a BOT financing scheme may be used, that ties gas production, reticulation and use into one commercial package.The electricity costs for coal and natural gas conversion are based on a reasonably optimistic scenarios, where no excessive ancillary capital works are charged against the plant. If environmental or other factors require such works, then increase in the electricity cost would occur. It is further considered that the plant required for conversion would be sourced from low cost countries China, India, Australia, the Philippines etc, as far as possible. The costings for conversion are further premised on the use of the site allocated for construction of PNPP 2, in that it is su pplied at no cost, and is geologically stable.If the time required for the construction and commissioning is crucial, then the upgrading of the plant as a nuclear station is clearly the preferred choice. Further, the financial analyses indicate that the nuclear firing of the plant offers the cheapest electricity. Given that the nuclear fuel price is likely to remain stable over the foreseeable future (as against likely rises for coal and natural gas), the nuclear upgrading and operation offers greater financial certainty to investors. M. E. T. T. S. s estimate for upgrading the nuclear plant to 1997/8 standards is $US380m.It is backed by further external assessment, and includes new safety features. $US300m is the cost of a basic upgrading based on calculations carried out by the National Power Corporation. SUMMARY COAL FIRING The conversion of the PNPP I plant to coal firing has some advantages. Coal technology is well proven, and only a small variation in the normal use of that technology is required to convert the plant. The power station will have a capacity similar to the design capacity for the nuclear plant, and will not be the largest plant in the new echelon of Luzons power facilities.The plant of 800 MW(e) capacity will be relatively brassy at a capital cost of $US505m without Flue Gas Desulphurisation, Selective Catalytic Reduction, or excessive expenditure on coal or ash handling and ignoring the previous expenditure on the nuclear system. A construction and commissioning period of 42 months is envisaged. The coal option however offers unique co-economic opportunities. The ash waste product would be valuable if used in ancillary industry. By using the Lahar produced by the Pinatubo eruption as an aggregate, with the ash, iron oxide and cement, valuable building materials could be produced.The disadvantages include designing and fitting an environmentally acceptable coal fired power station into the Bataan region. The materials handling alone wi ll create many environmental, management and operational difficulties. The infrastructure requirements for materials handling will also raise engineering and environmental questions that will need to be solved before construction begins. Other environmental questions concerning emission reduction and control must also be answered before work can commence.Another major disadvantage is the requirement for premium fuel, that is expensive in 1994, and in all probability will become relatively more expensive as the demand for clean coal increases in the future. SUMMARY NATURAL GAS FIRING (COMBINED CYCLE, GAS TURBINE) Natural gas provides the cleanest option for the conversion of the Bataan power station to fossil fuel firing. It further offers the most flexible power output to the grid. Options exist for running a part (or whole) of the plant as a single cycle peak load provider, or running the whole plant as a base load facility.The environmental hazard that would be created by such a plant is low compared to coal. Thermal pollution to the sea would be greater than the nuclear option, in that if a 1700MW(e) plant was built with 46% efficiency, the waste heat would be 2000MW(t). This heat would be partly dissipated into the atmosphere (250MW) as against to the sea (1750MW). The additional heat discharge to the sea would be about 500MW(t). NOx emissions can be successfully controlled by modern technology.Steam or water injection, ammonia addition or innovative combustion designs will produce acceptable (but not zero) NOx emissions. At 1700MW(e), the power station would be the largest in the Philippines, and would certainly require a review of the Luzon energy plan. The total consumption of natural gas over a twenty five year period would be 2. 5 TCF over half the entire Philippine projected resource from Palawan. Over a billion dollars in capital would be needed to build the plant, plus an additional substantial sum to supply the fuel either as LNG or pipeline gas .The security of a large gas holding area would need to be addressed. Such a holding area and power station would make a relatively easy target when compared to a coal fired plant with coal yards or nuclear facilities. The installation of the gas turbines could be achieved in eighteen months, but the construction of the steam generators and carrying out modifications to the existing plant would take a further twenty four months. From the preliminary financial analysis, the construction of a new combined cycle power station makes better financial sense. A NUCLEAR COMPARISONUnder the four headings (Technology, The Environment, Social and Political Concerns, and Economy) that were used to examine the coal-conversion option, a brief summary has been made of the nuclear option for comparison purposes. Technology Light water reactors are a very common type of nuclear reactor. They have good safety records, and most have high capacity factors. There development has been continuous, with te chnology now being available from Japan, Korea, France, the United Kingdom as well as the United States. They are used in close proximity to the Philippines (Japan, Korea and Taiwan) and have been armarked for use in Indonesia and Malaysia. The Bataan unit is 1970/80s technology. It is however essentially the same as new units, and could be readily upgraded to 1990s standards. The Environment The reactor will produce thermal pollution (waste heat) that will be disposed of, off Napot Point to the South China Sea. An environmental impact assessment cleared the plant for its designed heat disposal, and found that localised heating of the sea would not be excessive, given the strong currents that would ensure dispersion of the hot water.No other polluting emissions could be expected from the nuclear power plant. (Accidental emissions of radioactive material, are most unlikely. Once the plant was upgraded to 1997 standards, one accident in a million years could be expected. ) Social and Political Concerns The perceived problems at the Bataan power plant are its greatest liability. These problems include seismic instability, claims of faulty workmanship and the lack of experience of the operators. Many geological and seismic inspections have been carried out on the site, with the result being that no significant risk is apparent.To convince Philippine Society of the seismic safety of the plant, an educational programme would need to be carried out that emphasised the sites stability, and the high seismic safety factor of the plant (0. 4g). Part of the process of refurbishment and upgrading, would be quality assurance on all systems and components of the plant. Modern QA techniques would need to be used to provide the certainty that all significant parts of the plant meet the highest safety and operational standards. Initially foreign experts would be needed to run the plant. The prepare ofPhilippine staff would take considerable time and money, with the retrained s taff spending a number of years assisting in operating similar plants in neighbouring countries. Economics By comparison with the costs of conversion to coal or natural gas, the refurbishment and upgrading of the plant for nuclear operation would be significantly cheaper. A maximum price of $US300m (including staff training) is a fair limit, compared to fossil fuel conversion alternatives. The nuclear option should have the shortest lag time in terms of upgrading and commissioning.If foreign staff were used to initially man the plant then a period of eighteen to twenty months would be needed for full operation. This relatively short period, may be valuable in that the some of the expensive, old or temporary oil fired power plant could be retired early. Fuel costs, plus operation and management costs for LWRs should cost no more than ? US 2/kWH (0. 54 Centavos/kWH). If the interest on the $US 300m was 12%, with a pay-back period of twenty years for the capital, then a further 0. 9? U S/kWH would be added to the power cost.The total power cost would be 2. 9? US/kWH (0. 78 Centavos/kWH). If consideration was given to running the Bataan power station as a nuclear plant, then the environmental and economic benefits (as well as safety) should be emphasised, to overcome social and political opposition. THE PHILIPPINES AND THE NUCLEAR CYCLE The Philippines would be an importer of nuclear fuel and an exporter of spent fuel. The fuel that the reactor would use would be lightly enriched. As the uranium 235 is consumed, some plutonium is formed, part of which is also used up as fuel.The spent fuel rods contain a depleted amount of uranium 235, a little plutonium but mostly non-fissile uranium 238. These fuel rods can be reused in heavy water type reactors (CANDU) that are running in Japan, Korea and Taiwan, as primary fuel. All the wastes would be processed by those countries, whilst the Philippines would receive a financial return for its used nuclear fuel. This is a win- win situation. The sale of the used fuel rods could bring the net production cost of electricity (fuel plus operations and management) to under ? US 1. 5/kWH. PLANT SECURITY AND THE NUCLEAR OPTIONUnfortunately there is an ongoing insurgency situation in the Philippines. The insurgency problems are no longer major, and in all probability will recede. All major plant however does need a security system. The Bataan plant was constructed with good external, perimeter and internal security systems. There are commonly perceived notions that Nuclear Plants are susceptible to terrorist attack. These notions are based on a lack of understanding of the compact nature of nuclear plants, and the presence of very considerable containment structures for the reactor and fuel stores especially American designed LWRs.The plant is easy to guard, and would be able to resist attack with light weapons, including rocket propelled grenades etc. The damage from such an attack would be limited to the knock ing out of ancillary plant and structures, including the transformer yard, the auxiliary fuel tanks and administration building. Notes 1. The above power cost figures are based on 1997 projected fuel prices, 12% interest, 85% availability, and 20 years amortisation.. The price of coal and natural gas are considered to be more liable for major increases, than nuclear fuel.The Asian demand for both coal and gas is expected to outstrip supply in the coming decade. 2. The estimated construction time includes planning and design, equipment construction, site modification, plant erection and commissioning, and staff training (coal and natural gas conversion). If major ancillary works are required (eg. major wharves, ash and coal pipelines, shipping channels etc), then both an increase in the construction time and costs could be expected.