Wednesday, October 30, 2019

South Korea Leads the Way Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

South Korea Leads the Way - Essay Example Another advantage South Korea had over other nation is that their demographics consists of densely populated areas which lower the infrastructure investment required to provide high-speed internet. One of the amazing things about the South Korean case is that the country was able to become one of the leading nation in communication sector in a very short period of time. In 1995 only 1% of the population was online. By 2004 nearly 71% of the population was enjoying internet service in their homes. E-commerce in South Korea generates twice as many sales per capita in comparison with the United States. The gaming industry is one of the profitable and popular business sectors in South Korea. Since internet speeds are so high the new focus in South Korea is providing new exciting services. Innovation has become extremely important in the 21st century. It can be used by businesses as a tool to create new sources of revenue. We are living in a society in which people expect technology to pr ovide them with new products that attract their attention. Another lesson learned from the South Korean case is the importance of cooperation between the private and public sector. The government can provide incentives that lower the cost of doing business for corporations. Another element that allowed the telecommunication sector to thrive in South Korea was the introduction of new companies which created competition. Competition in business creates great benefits for the consumer such as lower prices, better service, and greater variety.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Interpreted language Essay Example for Free

Interpreted language Essay Interpreted language can be vague, based upon cultural differences. However, language can be compiled or written which strictly distinguishes how language is spoken around the world. Language, in fact, is the foundation of every culture. Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture. It includes: * Speech * Written characters * Numerals * Symbols * Gestures * Expression of nonverbal communication Clearly, languages reflect the priorities of a culture. Unlike some other elements of cultures, language permeates all parts of society. Nations vary dramatically in their tolerance for a variety of languages. By contrast, language structures our thinking and opinions. One step to creating better international understanding is to be conscientious about using language that accurately conveys what we mean. Language knows no political boundaries. Every place in the world has its own unique kind of people. Each member of a sub-cultural deserves respect, since they have their own mix of physical, intellectual, emotional, and spiritual assets to contribute. Geographically, language is correct in their area. However, in each of these locations, individuals have problems with accents, dialect, and speech rate such as stuttering. Language barrier tend to cause decline in productivity and frustration amongst the company, employees, and customers. Language (Cultural) difference cause barriers in the workplace and it can have a negative effect on the environment at the workplace. Due to growth in diversities in business, companies have to employ different cultures. Companies that fail to accommodate individuals are subject to discrimination lawsuits. Though companies set up different programs in order to combat this problem, cultural diversity continues to grow and issues continue. As organizations introduce diversity, the culture of the workplace will change. People make judgments based on what they already know of their own values and beliefs. When the unknown element is interjected, it causes confusion, fear, and chaos. This forces people to question themselves and defend their beliefs. When organizations increase diversity in the work environment, clashes occur amongst different cultures. Diversity brings in different perspectives, different approaches to problem solving, different visions, different languages, and different expectations. Communications, in face-to-face exchanges as well as through company newsletters and training sessions, should be welcoming and should accentuate the positive effects of employing workers with varying talents and accomplishments (Developing Diversity Initiatives, 1993). Organizations change as they become more diverse. Many changes will cause anger, frustration, and confusion. The introduction of cultural diversity, which includes different languages, causes organizations to go through five stages: * Anger Workers will resist change and expect others to fit their norms and speak their language. * Passive Regression People will become withdrawn. There will be little to no sharing of information, which is very important to be successful. * Chaos Groups form and struggle to regain power. This when discrimination accusations begin to surface. * Reclamation- this where the bridge builders arrive. They bridge the gaps between the groups. Bridge builders can belong to any group, respect other positions, and have pride in their own cultural identities. It is the bridge builders who can act as a link between the groups * Celebration This is the celebration of a new diverse culture. It is understood by everyone, that language and cultural diversity benefits everyone. The people are not uptight but comfortable and understanding of each others culture. This is the longest and most difficult stage for the groups to complete. There are steps that companies can take to prevent civil unrest within an organization. The following steps can be used to prevent confrontation and assist in creating a positive and productive environment: * Purpose Develop a strong sense of purpose for the employees that transcend all differences including language. A common purpose will keep the working together for the common goal. By developing purpose, the organization is relaying the message that all the different groups and cultures are on the same team and are all one company. * Tell Stories Stories help connect the groups. Through stories, different groups can relate to each other as people. Stories also give the groups a chance to voice its opinions and concerns. * Self Awareness Companies should develop self awareness * Within the organization commonly, people are afraid of the unknown. By developing self-awareness, the organization forces the groups to face the unknown and to overcome their fears and insecurities. * Training Programs Companies should implement training programs to teach the different groups to be culturally aware of one another. The programs should also include language courses to teach communication skills. Organizations are adapting a number of approaches to overcome language barriers among employees (Journal of Business, 2000). English is the universal language of business, and it is only one of several languages spoken in the United States. It is very important for organizations to create an environment where everyone, despite language spoken, is considered equal. Companies are offering training courses and providing translators to make everyone feel comfortable. As the population becomes more diverse and the traditional societies are becomes more mobile, companies are faced with cultural and language issues. It is up to the organization to make sure it is taking all the necessary steps to ensure that groups and cultures effectively work together and is productive. Language does more than simply describe reality; it also serves to shape the reality of a culture(Colorado Business Communication, 1991). Like other forms of language, nonverbal communication is not the same in all cultures. It can take many forms such as facial expressions and visual images to learn nonverbal communication from people who share our same culture. For instance, people with hearing loss communicate using sign language that is another way of communicating. Your signing hand is the hand you write and color with and your other hand is the helping hand. This technique found @ is informative for nonverbal communication. Gesture, body posture, direction of attention, eye contact, level of conversation, and other behaviors are interpreted as signs of inclusion and exclusion. However, there are many layers of communicating further. Verbal language and body language signifies whether the line of interaction is conveyed and not a form of evasiveness. With the perception that English is the universal language, it is not always perceived by all nations or society as a whole. Those of us who do use English do so in spite of our ambiguity towards it, or perhaps because we can find in that linguistic struggle a reflection of other struggles taking place in the real world, struggle between the cultures within ourselves and the influences at work upon our societies. To conquer English may be to complete the process of making ourselves free. As relations grow in the workplace, the social interaction is not the same. For example, when Spanish-speaking employees interact with English-speaking employees some issues that formulate are: which language to speak or when to use an interpreter. In a social setting it is even harder when greeting and addressing people correctly. Thou not to provide a definitive answer to language as related to pronunciation, it is difficult to understand individuals whom speak English but with an accent. Often, individuals are asked repeatedly what is being said in order to convey what was said. Bahri (Language, 2003) states Language as communication and as culture are then products of each other Language carries culture, and culture carries, particularly through orature and literature, the entire body of values by which we perceive ourselves and our place in the worldLanguage is thus inseparable from ourselves as community of human beings with a specific form and character, a specific history, a specific relationship to the work. Language is a critical element of culture. Members of society generally share a common language, which facilitates day-to-day exchanges with others. There are many ways of communicating language in the workforce and, it is not the only way to show a line of interaction to work together but a way of social interaction. The work force is just one avenue to rectify the critical success for todays employer when diversity by todays standards is met. References Bahira, Depika (2003). Language. Retrieved April 28, 2004 from website: Colorado Business Magazine, May 1991 v18 pg.37 (3) Duncan, Robert A. (1993). Developing Diversity Initiatives: Definition and Process. Retrieved April 28, 2004 from website: Journal of Business Communication v33 pg. 48 Management Review, Dec 1998, pg. 42

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Haunting of Mind :: The Haunting of Mind Essays

The Haunting of Mind The ghosts made their presence known at 9:36 p.m. the first evening. Later in life, when Rachel Fleischman thought back on the events at the house, she marveled that the exact time was so firmly set in her mind. She wasn't wearing a watch, and didn't recall asking anyone else the time. She remembered, almost as if the presences told her, wanting her to remember for their sake, and for the sake of posterity. The four of them sat around the table in the kitchen of the haunted house. Rachel sat in her own chair while Julie sat in Mark's lap. Brandon remained standing, leaning against an empty chair from behind. Mark's diary was open on the table and reached around Julie's body to record his first entry. He read aloud as he wrote. "Evening One: We have experienced no unusual events so far. Paranormal residents have not attempted to make contact. Morale is still high. Maybe our luck will increase later this evening." Brandon smiled at him. "We have almost three hours 'till midnight. Something might happen yet." Julie's arm was wrapped behind Mark's neck and her hand played distractedly with his dark, curly hair. "Happen? Like what? You really think dishes will start flying around and the furniture will rearrange itself? Come on." Brandon shrugged. His brown eyes were noncommittal. "I'm not saying anything, just that we shouldn't jump to conclusions." He began drumming his fingers on the back of the chair. "I hate feeling . . . anxious like this, like I'm waiting to see what I got for Christmas." Rachel nodded. "Or waiting to see what grades you received in Chemistry." Julie groaned. "Please don't mention homework." Rachel and the others laughed. Mark's eyes glinted. "Why don't we give the ghosts a call?" He looked at the others with a mischievous grin. Julie rolled her eyes. She immediately took her hand away from Mark's hair and got up off the chair. She turned to face Mark with both hands on her hips. "You brought a Ouija board, didn't you? Even after Mr. Olson told you not to bring it?" Mark simply laughed. "Are you ever going to grow up?" Julie asked, almost pleading. "It's all psychosomatic garbage. It's not real. You're just letting your unconscious do everything." "I doubt you've ever tried it, so how would you know?" Mark countered.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

How do Bennett and Chaucer present women in ‘The Outside Dog’ in ‘Talking Heads 2’?

The main female characters in these two texts are Alison in ‘The Miller's Tale' and Marjory in ‘The Outside Dog. ‘ However, it may also be possible to consider the prominent feminine qualities in Absolon, and also Tina, the dog in the Talking Heads 2' monologue. It can also be said that Stuart's victims are presumably female. Alison, in ‘The Miller's Tale' is largely presented as the stereotypical young wife, which follows the genre of the tale itself. The Miller says, ‘fair was this yonge wyf,' so the reader immediately sees her as the attractive and beautiful stereotype, which is intensified by the fact that the Miller does not give her a name until line 258, effectively objectifying her as a character, giving her no individuality. Also, the repetition of this title reduces her own personality and makes her seem almost like the property of her husband. Alison's two-dimensional image is furthered by Chaucer's frequent references to colour, in this case, black and white. The colours usually describe what she is wearing, for example, ‘a bamcloth eek as whit as morne milk' and ‘of col-black silk. ‘ Chaucer sees Alison, and possible women in general, as a contrast of black and white; the white of her apron is contrasted to the black of her hair and eyebrows. White is traditionally seen as a pure colour and black's a dark, mysterious colour. This shows that on the surface Alison may be beautiful, but she is not so pure and loyal to her husband at the end on the tale. Chaucer may be generalising this to all women, suggesting they can ‘put on a front' and be something they are not. However, the simple, plain nature of the two colours presents her as a two-dimensional character with little depth. In the same way, the character of Marjory is presented as being quite weak and obedient towards her husband. It is obvious to Marjory that her husband is guilty for the murders, but she does not say anything to the police, and she hides his slacks, which would have been crucial evidence, ‘I sneaked in and got a bin bag and fetched them inside. Marjory seems quite a passive wife, and accepts what her husband tells her, often without questioning him directly, ‘He took the van over to Rawdon last night. Said it was Rawdon anyway. ‘ The distrust here is evident, but as she is not presented as a particularly strong character, this distrust is not voiced, or acted upon. This may suggest generally that women are the weaker, more passive sex, and should be obedient towards their husbands, in the same way that Marjory is. Marjory's obsession with cleaning says a lot about the ‘role of women' in the home. She is portrayed as the hardworking housewife, which seems to be her main and most important role, ‘the police said not to touch anything but I wasn't having the place left upset like that so I set to and cleaned down†¦ ‘ This is also emphasised by the way Stuart considers the role of his wife. He says, ‘You're lucky I do it at all' when talking about washing his own clothes. Like in ‘The Miller's tale,' the female character is presented as the typical wife, However, Marjory is the stereotypical obedient wife. The physical description and physiognomy of the character of Alison is extensive, and Chaucer seems to be parodying poetic portraits of the subjects of courtly lovers. He uses similes to compare Alison to the domestic and everyday where the courtly poets would have chosen exotic and valuable comparisons. For example, she is repeatedly compared to animals, such as ‘Winsinge she was, as is a joly colt. ‘ These descriptions, although they sometimes express positive qualities, such as her liveliness, may also portray a negative image of the ‘yonge wyf. ‘ For example, it may be inferred here that she is quite immature. Alison's outward appearance is concentrated on, and as a reader we do not learn a lot about her personality and characteristics, suggesting that she has little more than her looks in her favour. For example, ‘as any wezele hir body gent and small. ‘ This portrays Alison as being slim bodied in appearance. Chaucer presents women as being an object of sexuality, and the tale may be predominantly for the amusement of a male audience. This compares to Marjory and Stuart in ‘The Outside Dog' as Marjory is used as a sexual ‘object' by her husband, seen in the tome and language used, ‘he wakes me up and he has another go. The tone here is quite dismissive, with no feeling involved, but Marjory also seems quite resentful of her husband, as she is treated like it is her duty as a wife to obey her husband. She does not refer to Stuart by name, and by repeatedly using the pronoun ‘he,' she shows him no recognition, intensifying her resentment of her husband, and the distant relationship the two characters have. Chaucer uses strong adjectives when presenting Alison as a sly lover, she is said to have a ‘likerous ye' portraying her as being provocative and sexy. She is also described as a ‘wench', which is a very uncomplimentary term for a woman. This contrasts to her appearance and wealth. Her willingness to commit adultery is seen in her encounter with Nicholas and at first her seeming unwillingness to engage in any such behaviour with Nicholas, ‘I will nat kisse thee, by my fey! ‘ However, within five lines of the tale, she has ‘changed her mind' and has been persuaded by Nicholas. This portrays her as having few morals or determination, and almost ‘teasing Nicholas. ‘ Overall, the character of Alison is not one in which a reader can sympathise with, as she is largely portrayed in a negative light. However, I feel that a reader is more likely to sympathise with the character of Marjory, as Bennett does not portray her as being a particularly ‘bad' or blameworthy character, and we may feel sorry for her because of the treatment she encounters by her husband. It also works in her favour that the text is written in the form of a monologue, therefore the reader is essentially encouraged to relate to the character, as she describes events from her own point of view. However, like with Alison, as a reader we do not really agree with her actions, and may feel that she should be more of an active, rather than passive character. The character of Absolon is given very feminine qualities by Chaucer. His description is very precise and extensive in detail, for example, ‘crul was his heer, and as the gold it shoon. ‘ His description is rather unusual for a man, and strictly contrasts to the strong, manly portrait of the Miller. Absolon's character is largely mocked and treated as a figure of fun due to these effeminate qualities that he possesses. This again portrays femininity in a bad light, diminishing the importance and status of women in society, particularly in the period in which Chaucer wrote the tales. The fact that the dog in Bennett's monologue is female may also portray women in a negative manner. Dogs are typically viewed as being obedient towards their ‘masters. ‘ This suggests that the master-servant relationship should be extended to the husband and wife, as Marjory is in competition with Tina for her husband's recognition, ‘That dog's not inside is she? ‘ The victims in this monologue are also women, which again presents women as being ‘helpless victims' and open to abuse from men. Again, the underlying theme of the passive nature of women is explored, as Stuart takes advantage of this.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

French Cuisine

French Cuisine is one of the most popular types of food around these days and is known worldwide for its quality. The French gained their techniques through history in pretty much one form. They got most of their notoriety because of the fact that they were ruled by so many different people. There were many different countries and groups of people who conquered the French region throughout the past 2000 years. So each time a new ruler conquered them new ideas and techniques were introduced to the French cuisine.France is said to have begun their culinary art in he 16th century by the wife of Henry II, Catherine de Medicis. They brought personal cooks with them wherever they went. Later on as it became more solidified French Cuisine had cookbooks being made in the 19th century. La Cuisine Classique by Urbain Dubois and Emile Bernard. In the book they suggested serving food while still hot and were criticized heavily for it but the French enjoyed it and its now adopted worldwide by eve ryone. An average day in France begins with breakfast, which is known as le petit d ©Jeuner.This usually consists of coffee or hot chocolate, and sometimes a croissant which is made of a flaky, butter-based pastry or bread. Pain au chocolat is like a croissant but has a chocolate filling. Lunch is pretty laid back. It usually begins with hors d'oeuvre, or appetizers. Meat or fish follows, and the meal ends with cheese, fruit, or sometimes a dessert. After school many kids eat a generally healthy snack of fruit or some bread to tide them over. This is known as le go?ter. The evening meal is when whole family gets together and talks about their day. This always has a few courses.Most dinners end with wine and a desert of some sort. L'Ap ©ritif is a national custom in France. It occurs before the meal where the family gathers about a half an hour or so before a meal to share a drink, a small appetizer, and conversation with family, friends, and neighbors. It is an established socia l activity which is enjoyed by people of all ages, and which forms an important part of home life and in restaurants. There are many dishes that are either rare or exclusive to the French people. For example, Pot au Feu is dish of simmered meats and vegetables.Bouillabaisse is from The Provence and region and is made with fish, often with their heads, and shellfish in a spicy soup. Sauces are exclusive to the region they are from. Horseradish is from the Alsace region, mustard is from the Dijon region, Aioli is from provence, and rouille from Languedoc. These are perfect examples of region specific foods. Meats used in France are similar to the sauces. Ducks and Geese are common ingredients in meals unlike most parts of the world. Many of the stews created in France are not eaten in the United states.The Vegetable stews usually don't cross the Atlantic Ocean. Belgian Endive and Swiss Chard are made only in France. Cheese is another exclusive product. It is made in the Northern regio n and France is known for these cheeses. Muenster cheese now worldwide was born in Northern France. Swiss Cheese and German cheese are often imitated and popular in France. Bread is extremely popular in France and there are many specialties. A baguette is a long thin piece of bread Icing and many sugar toppings are added to bread to make it a dessert in many parts of France.France has many original pieces of food that have been imitated but they are always known for their quality. This has a lot to do with the type of training the Chefs go through. Most go through at least a 3-4 year program which includes hotel management. Then they have an internship type program afterward to give them hands-on experience. Holidays such as Bastille day cause the French to go all out. Everyone either cooks or attends a huge meal for family and friends. Christmas dinner is similar to the U. S. whereas close family get together and have a long meal with numerous courses.These usually last for a long time because they chat a lot on these special occasions. France's cuisine is very popular, and at the same time very expensive. Haute Cuisine was created and means Gourmet cooking. It always uses premium ingredients and no one ever complains about it never tasting bad. But the French are quick to critique a bad meal. It is not considered very disrespectful to tell the cook you did not like the meal. The French are different than everyone else in almost everything they do, including how they act and how they cook.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

European Union and Human Rights Laws †Global Law Essay

European Union and Human Rights Laws – Global Law Essay Free Online Research Papers European Union and Human Rights Laws Global Law Essay ‘Does European Union Law(EU law) sufficiently protect human right of an individual when infringed by domestic law?’, ‘When EU Law infringes human rights, are they sufficiently protected?’ I think ‘Sufficient’ protection is only given , if it is more than the protection given by member states and since the Community/Union has assumed supranational power, the standard should be of at least compatible with the ECHR . There is no provision in the EEC Treaty until the Treaty of European Union(TEU) which referred to respect for human rights and amendments of Treaty of Amsterdam (TA) declaring that the foundation of the Union is based on the respect for human rights and imposing threat of suspension on Member States rights if in breach . But since 1969, the European Court of Justice do assume to recognize the humans rights in the ECHR , international treaties and national legislation and declare that it draws its ‘inspiration ’ from them and measures incompatible cannot be upheld. Recently a draft ‘Charter on Fundamental Rights has been adopted and is supposed to have full legal effect, although it has not found a legal status, at least till the IGC this year. For clarification, I would like to separate the past into pre-TEU and post-TEU and the present as the status after the adoption of the draft ‘Charter’. In the past, the court has given more priority to community law than human rights even if they were protected by national legislation, international treaties and the ECHR. In Storks’ the claimant ‘rights of undertaking; were protected by German Constitutional law, but the Higher Authority refused to acknowledge it . In Stauders , the Court did recognize ‘rights to dignity’, and allowed ‘variation in the method of checking beneficiaries particulars.’ In International Fruit, the Court refused to accept the fundamental rights conferred under international treaties. The court had continued to accept fundamental rights sometimes and reject it sometime . Sometimes it had respected the fundamental rights in the constitution of the member states and the ECHR and sometime not .Even after TEU, there is no change in the Court’s attitude. In some cases the Court has respected human rights while in others not. Therefore, it is not the treaties or the ‘inspirations’ which the Court relies on to respect fundamental rights and in fact reference to it are only made for mere lip service, to justify their judgment or to sugar coat judgments which are absurd in light of fundamental rights. I think it would be more illuminating, to consider the circumstances and underlying reason for the court rejection and acceptance to see if fundamental rights are sufficiently protected. In the past, the European Courts has only upheld individuals claim of human rights in domestic courts, if the claim is within the ambit of EU law. In Defrenne , the Court declared that it has no jurisdiction . Similarly in Grogan and ERT . In Demirel , the ECJ said that the Treaty’ does not empower the community to guarantee commitments towards non-member country’. In the contrary, in similar claims by nationals of other member states, the Court has been more receptive . When the Court extends protection to an individuals claim of domestic infringement, it is only to protect rights conferred by EU legislation . The rights conferred under the directive may be in line with the European Convention on Human Right, but if one can remember the history of the treaties, the treaties was for their objective of ‘a common market’ and the ‘integration of Europe’ and not for the ‘protection of fundamental right’. I think it is a grave mis judgment, to conclude that by protecting rights in line with their aim, EU law ‘sufficiently protects’ fundamental human rights. EU law do not go the extra mile to really protect human rights which are infringed outside community law, but rather protect the rights conferred by EU Law and to ensure that the member states implements EU Law . The Courts have respected fundamental rights in staff cases . Staff cases involve internal management, where there is no issue of conflicting national legislation, EU law or Community’s objectives. By rendering protection it does not reduce their supremacy. How far ‘human rights’ are protected can only be seen in cases where the rights clearly conflicts EU Law and it objectives and threatens the existence of EU legislation and its supremacy? Human Rights v Community Aims and objectives In Germany v Council, although imposing a higher tax duty on imports of bananas from Third Countries is a clear breach of one’s right to property and freedom to pursue a trade or a profession, the court held that ‘ it may be restricted particularly in the context of a common organization market’. In Haver, although by preventing the owner of a land to cultivate vines on it, EU law restricted one’s right to use his property, the Court justified it . HR vs legality of EU law EU law has never respected :the right to a fair trial† by refusing locus standi for direct actions which have been criticized by the Courts themselves. HR vs institutions action and decisions. In cases like Dow Benelux, Dow Chemical, the actions of the Commission , clearly infringed the applicants rights of defence, but the Court jusitified it as ‘ action as within its power’. In Orkem , the commission’s decision to obtain further documents, after having conducted a search to substantiate the allegations was held to be within the scope of their power, although they clearly contravene the claimants rights to remain silent and self incrimination. These rights are fundamental in criminal proceedings and to deny this rights is too grave a breach. If the allegations by the commissions are proved, the claimant would be fined and therefore it cannot be differentiated from criminal proceedings. If criminals can have the rights, I cannot see the justification as to why the right cannot be given in cases involving infringement of community law, a law merely for economical reason. I think the EC rules on Competition are infringements of an individual’s freedom to conduct his business activity. I cannot see what is wrong if a seller should give discounts to increase his sales , which is common in every market and it is fundamentally wrong to impose restriction. The commissions’ actions to control competition are aggravating the breach of those rights and the Courts by justifying the Commissions thrashes out such rights. In Case T 18/96 , 45 months of delay by the commission to act was upheld to be reasonable, while in ECHR it had been held that 17 months exceeds a reasonable time . Human rights vs Administrative convenience Any reasonable man would know that the deposit system, in Handelsgesllschaft , is unfair as no producers can predict his production, but the ECJ held that the deposit system is necessary for administrative convenience . Human rights vs the supremacy of European Union In the International Fruit case , the Court, to protect the supremacy of EU law and to prevent the striking off of the EC regulation, restricting the right to import apples from third country, concluded that GATT was ‘not capable of conferring on citizens of the Community rights which they can invoke before the courts’, while Directives can confers rights directly to the citizens of Member States . . In Nold, the Court claimed that the applicants condition was because of the economic change and not the commissions decision, but the claimant in Nold was in the same situation as the claimant in Stork. In Stork it rejected the claim on grounds of supremacy of Community Law, and by referring to respect for fundamental rights and putting the blame on economic changes in Nold, it is obviously an underhand method to maintain its supremacy. Of course there are cases where the court has given priority to fundamental rights , but those cases are clearly where the commission is at fault or has exercised their discretion in excess of their power . The limited cases where human rights are protected should not be construed as sufficient, because if not for EU law, the human rights would not have been infringed, therefore the Court should protect the rights above the community interest of ‘a common market’. After the adoption of the ‘Charter’, the Court and institution has shown some changes in its attitude. By an international decision , the commission has decided to form a compatibility review of it legislative proposal with the Charter. The Court had made reference to the Charter . It had rejected the inadmissibility argument by the commission and gave locus standi to an applicant to bring nullity proceeding against directives , rejected council’s and commissions refusal to grant access to documents . In domestic cases like, Carpenter , the ECJ gave opinion that ‘the decision to deport’ infringes the right of an overstayed philipine wife of a British National, to respect for her family life, although it recognizes that ‘the situation is rather to be classified as an international situtation, depends exclusively on UK’. Similarly in Baumbast . In Case 117/01 , the Court finds that there is inequality treatment which, although it does not directly undermine enjoyment of a right protected by Community Law’. But in some cases it has rejected claims of human rights. Therefore I cannot conclude that the Court has finally put human rights above community interest. Will the Charter and a constitution of Europe give sufficient protection to fundamental human rights? I don’t think codification of the treaties and the Charter into a written constitution, provides any kind of extra protection for human rights. It just gives a legal basis for the communities actions so that their validity cannot be challenged. It just eliminates the concept that Community Law is intended for a ‘common market’ and not to preserve human rights and the Courts need not have to draw their inspiration from ECHR because they have their own Charter. It is an attempt to preserve its supremacy . A look at the Charter shows that some rights specified there are rights rarely in conflict in the context of Community law , and some are rights which are already protected by the EC treaties , while some are re-enforcement of the objectives of the Union . Those rights which were often in conflict with the EU Law , have been subject to limitations and all other rights which are not specifically limited are subject to limitations on the â€Å"principle of proportionality† . The Charter is subjecting human rights to EU law and the discretion is on the European Court as to whether human right should prevail over EU law. European Union which cannot be literally called democratic, especially the commission, are not answerable for their decisions to the electorates of member states . When EU law infringes human rights in the future, the European Court should not be placed in a position to decide which one to give priority to, because one can never expect an impartial decision if the person who is making the decision has an interest in it. Sadly, any infringement of fundamental Human Rights by EU law cannot be brought against the Union in ECtHR as European Union is not a signatory. Therefore I don’t think the position would be any better than what it was in the past and I fear that the exercise and abuse of power by the Union is not being capable of being challenged after having entrenched the EU law in a constitutional document to which all member states are signatories. Article 51 states that the Charter is only applicable in the application of Union law. Therefore it is doubtfully that it provides a remedy for individuals whose rights are infringed by domestic law. As discussed, despite the Court’s claim of ‘inspiration’ derived from national legislation and ECHR, it has been more concern on the objective, functioning and supremacy of the EU rather than giving ‘sufficient’ protection for Human Rights, even if protected by other legislations. The ‘Charter’ cannot be triumphed as a solution as it is not an incorporation of ECHR in EU law. The only way fundamental rights can be sufficiently protected I EU law is to have an independent Court, not subjected to EU law, if possible ECtHR to have jurisdiction over European Court and EU related human right issues. Bibliography 1 The General Provisions of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, R Alonso Garcia 2 Mapping Hunam Rihts, Reading the European Union, Andrew Williams 3 The duty to protect fundamental rights in the European Community, Liv Jaeckel 4 The Foundations of European Community Law, Hartley. 5 EU Law, Text, Cases and Materials, Craig and De Burca Research Papers on European Union and Human Rights Laws - Global Law EssayPETSTEL analysis of IndiaDefinition of Export QuotasQuebec and CanadaCapital Punishment19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraTwilight of the UAWInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesTrailblazing by Eric AndersonRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andAppeasement Policy Towards the Outbreak of World War 2

Monday, October 21, 2019

Frederic Chopin

Frederic Chopin Frederic Chopin was born on February 22, 1810, in Zelazowa Wola, a village six miles from Warsaw, Poland. His father, Nicholas Chopin was born in Marianville, eastern France in 1771. He died in 1844. He was mainly a tutor in English, math; etc. the instrument he played was the flute and the violin. His mother Justyna was born in 1782 in Poland and died in 1861. She was a farming girl, well educated, and a homemaker during their marriage. She played the piano. His father and mother got married in June of 1806. Frederic had three sisters and no brothers. His sister's names were Louise, Isabella, and Emilia.Frederic was in love with music at a young age. He started getting piano lessons when he was six. His teacher was Czech and his name was Wojceich Zywny. He based his teaching on Bach, Mozart, and Beethoven. While he was six when he held his first public performance in 1817.Frà ©dà ©ric DABIBy age seven his first composition was written by his father: the Pollonaise in B Flat major. At age eight, he played at a public charity concert. At age fifteen his first work was published, it was a rondo. At seven-teen he graduated from Lyceum, after he was recognized as the leading pianist of Warsaw and a very talented composer. At nineteen, he held two very successful concerts in Vienna: the unquestionable center of music for that day. Frederic traveled to Austria, Poland, and Russia in the mist of the apparent begging of the war. Later he returned to Warsaw to get his final belongings to get ready for a more permanent move. While he was there gathering his things, his friends gave him a silver goblet filled with polish soil. He kept always as he never was able to return...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Schedule Instagram Posts Along With Everything Else - CoSchedule

Schedule Instagram Posts Along With Everything Else With its 500 million active users, Instagram can help you reach your audience in a social network they already love. But†¦ the in-the-moment nature of posting to Instagram makes it difficult for marketers to strategically capture the opportunity. With for Instagram, the newest feature in your favorite marketing calendar, you’ll go from spontaneous to strategic.  That  means you’ll quit forgetting to post on Instagram! Now you’ll post to Instagram with a few easy clicks, schedule your Instagram content where you plan everything else, and collaborate with your team better than ever. Start scheduling to  Instagram with now! Finally! Plan all of your content + social media in one place! Including #Instagram!Quit Forgetting To Post On Instagram Already! Get notified on your phone when it’s time to post  so you don’t miss out on consistently reaching your followers. Begin by scheduling  Instagram posts in your  calendar where you organize everything else. Then rock  the all-new for  Instagram app on your mobile device, available on the Apple App Store and Google Play Store. Quit forgetting to post on #Instagram with !Youll receive push notification reminders when youve scheduled  messages for  Instagram! Your reminders come with a beautiful  preview, so youll know exactly what youre posting at a glance. Now youll  proactively schedule your Instagram content so you quit forgetting to post on Instagram! Post To Instagram With A Few Easy Clicks Eliminate copying and pasting your messages by using the tool designed to do it for you! Get content from your calendar into Instagram with an easier process than ever before. The for  Instagram mobile app not only reminds you when its time to post. It gives you the content  youve planned so you can share to Instagram with a few easy clicks. You can also post, reschedule, or delete missed messages in seconds. Plan your content and get it into Instagram easily with ! Post to #Instagram with a few easy clicks! Heres how:Schedule Instagram Alongside Everything Else Consolidate your toolset! Easily schedule Instagram messages (even for multiple accounts) where you manage all of your social media posts and other content in . You can now schedule  Instagram-specific campaigns all in one place. And you can include Instagram messages as  one network of many for your social media campaigns! Plus, you can manage content for multiple Instagram accounts with  one calendar. That gets you organized  while you consolidate your toolset. Have multiple calendars? You can still easily manage all of your Instagram accounts with one  for Instagram mobile app. Manage all of your social media scheduling in one place! Schedule #Instagram content alongside everything else!Go From Spontaneous To Strategic Get a real return from a planned posting schedule. Schedule your Instagram messages in advance to post truly Insta-worthy content at the best times for engagement. Plan Instagram projects with Social Campaigns to organize messages in one place. Streamline your process and take the tedious work out of posting to Instagram! Now youll plan what youll post in advance on a calendar designed to help you manage your entire social media schedule. View previews of how your messages will appear on Instagram, and see your complete posting plan. Youll  eliminate the stress behind the in-the-moment nature of posting to Instagram! Plus, you can eliminate the guesswork of determining when to post with Best Time Scheduling.  Youll automatically schedule messages at the highest active time for Instagram to increase your reach! Collaborate Better Than Ever On Instagram Projects Empower your team to work together more effectively with easy, customizable workflows and communication (without the overwhelming email strings). Planning multiple Instagram campaigns? Manage your process more efficiently with customizable task templates in . Easily assign tasks (complete with due dates) to team members to make sure your Instagram projects get done on time, every time! Your discussion for the project lives in for everyone to see, eliminating missed emails and miscommunication! Start Scheduling Your Instagram Content Where You Organize Everything Else! Scheduling to Instagram is available on all new calendars. The for Instagram mobile app is available on the Google Play Store and Apple App Store. So start scheduling to Instagram now! Plus, in addition to Instagram, these seven  amazing new features just launched in your favorite marketing calendar over the past few months: Social Analytics: Measure the success of your social messages and prove the ROI of the work you do! A New User Experience:  Organize your content- and your team- more efficiently than ever. 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Saturday, October 19, 2019

Discuss the differential roles of the left and the right hemispheres Essay

Discuss the differential roles of the left and the right hemispheres and individual differences in functional lateralisation - Essay Example Therefore men are more lateralized and women are considered to utilize both the hemispheres to a larger extent while performing various tasks. It is claimed that certain skills like spatial and mathematical capability improves with lateralization while women enjoy advantage for verbal test because they use both the hemispheres equally (Lee 2005 p.138). Despite gender differences, lateralisation also involves individual differences due to the difference in the composition of the brain cells. Hemispheric specialization is a classic dichotomy that suggests that the right hemisphere concerns visuo-spatial abilities and the left hemisphere is associated with linguistic abilities. However, this does not mean that the distribution of hemispheric functions does not make the right hemisphere irrelevant to language or the left hemisphere ignorant of processing non-linguistic data. Novelty-routinisation continuum is an approach that explains hemispheric specialization of functions that argues the basic reasons for the lateralisation of cerebral responsibilities. The theory proposes that the left hemisphere is crucial for the processing of routinised cognitive decisions and pre-existing representations and the right hemisphere is crucial for the processing of new cognitive situations that has no pre-existing strategies or codes. The traditional assumption thus becomes an extraordinary case of this basic principle (Malloy & Duffy 2001 p.83) The novelty routinisation approach gives emphasis to individual differences with the theory that the cognitive novelty of one may be a familiar concept to another that can be explained through a dynamic approach instead of a static theory that details hemispheric specialization or laterlisation. Hemispheric specialization tends to vary with individuals at varying stages of skill development. The dominance of left hemisphere is not uniformly strong for all factors of

Friday, October 18, 2019

The Source Debate and the Similarities of Albovine and The Witch Thesis Proposal

The Source Debate and the Similarities of Albovine and The Witch - Thesis Proposal Example The Source Debate and the Similarities of Albovine and The Witch Controversy surrounds where a similar instance can be found in the beginning act of The Witch by Thomas Middleton: at a remarkable feast arranged for the marriage of Isabella and Antonio, the Duke passes around a skull fashioned as a goblet among the party attendees and makes them drink from it. As it happens, the skull belonged to the slain father of the Duchess, who is also present at the dinner and is expected to drink from it. This basic similarity between the two plays is the premise of my suggested thesis. In an article studying the true source of Albovine, Killis Campbell asserts that The Witch was not published until 1778 by the famous Shakespearean editor Isaac Reed; however, it is purported to have been written in the early 17th century by Middleton, in around 1615-1616. Albovine was registered in 1629 (Campbell) leading to clear possibility that Davenant had been aware of The Witch before Albovine was conceived. Further proof of his knowledge can be taken from the fact that he used the Witch in his rendition of Macbeth. Niccolo Machiavelli’s The History of Florence is also credited by some historians as being the source of these plays, including another Irish play called The Revengeful Queen by William Phillips; however, Phillips’ work seems to be based more on Machiavelli and both Albovine and The Revengeful Queen bear resemblance to the Witch, making Davenant’s work open to the charge of plagiarism.

Property Asset Management ( A professional Report) Essay

Property Asset Management ( A professional Report) - Essay Example The team has to have at least three (3) more members who suitably qualified and experienced aside from the Property Assessment Manager to enable the smooth and professional execution of the project's principal task of finding a viable headquarters for the firm. One is the Senior Property Appraiser who will be tasked to perform difficult technical valuation work in the classification and appraisal of real property for value assessment purposes and to assist in the training of subordinate appraisers in the theory and techniques of real property appraisals. The SPA's duties may include but are not limited to: leads assessment projects, including assisting with planning and coordination of projects; annually performs preliminary and final review on a large volume of complex valuation changes such as farm and forest property segregations and mergers; This person must have a working knowledge of -- Property tax system and adjustments necessary to compute assessed values resulting from corrections or adjustments to real market value; principles, practices and methods of real property appraisal; technical appraisal practices and procedures used in residential, commercial, farm, forest, manufactured housing and land appraisal, pertinent structural, economic, and environmental factors affecting property value; special assessment programs including farm, forest, wildlife habitat, historical, commercial facilities under construction, riparian and open space; construction techniques, blueprints, maps, property descriptions, quality of building materials, equipment, workmanship, and general construction quality and quantity as applied to

Thursday, October 17, 2019

International Hospitality Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

International Hospitality Analysis - Essay Example The sector has been through several upheavals. When the economic performs well the consumer confidence is high and people are keen to spend their disposable incomes on holidays and easting out. As the same time, the sector is also sensitive to unforeseen events beyond its control – like threats of terrorist attacks, foot or mouth crisis and the bird-flu outbreak (LSC 2006). In addition, there are other drivers of change which include minimum wage and holiday entitlement, health and safety, no-smoking legislation. The economy becomes affected due to changes in legislation, changing market forces, and periods of recession and inflation (Wilson et al. 1997). In fact everything from the impact of globalization to consumer savings can impact this sector. Hospitality is the fastest growing industry and exhibits tremendous diversity both with respect to the types of job available and the workers. As far as the human resource is concerned, there is a huge demand in the sector but the availability of staff is difficult. This sector is characterized by low rates of pay, high staff turnover, low levels of training, low skills levels, unsocial hours, seasonal nature of work, predominance of casual staff, and the non-professional image of the industry (LSC 2006). This sector traditionally recruits a young workforce yet the biggest challenge that this sector faces is that of skills shortages. The local people are reluctant to enter this sector because of low wages and job uncertainties. The hospitality sector in the developed countries is facing labor shortages and can expect to face even greater shortages in the future (Choi et al. 2000). As per the economic law of supply and demand, this means that the sector needs to offer higher wages to attract skilled staff as there is short supply of staff. If the sector offers higher wages, the profitability is affected specially during economic downturn. As such the hospitality managers need to prepare themselves for the future. In

The Standards of Care of a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis Essay

The Standards of Care of a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis - Essay Example Proliferation of the synovial membrane and uncontrolled persistent inflammation are the characteristic features of RA which manifest as a symmetric arthritis affecting several small and large joints. Other symptoms include fatigue, articular stiffness, anorexia and fever. Complaint of pain and limited lifestyle are the characteristic features of the onset of the disease. If left untreated, the inflammation will result in serious life threatening conditions during its progression. Morbidity, progressive disability and hastened mortality feature the untreated disease conditions. As a result, it entails serious economic implications for both the patients and their families as well as society as the affected people are unable to continue in their employment with the same efficiency as before with their normal functioning of their palms, feet and gait seriously affected and progressively disfigured and disabled (Cush, Weinblatt, & Kavanaugh, 2010). According to National Audit Office, ther e are around 580,000 people afflicted with RA with additional 26,000 new cases every year. The disease affects people of age between 40 to 60 years with women who are three times more likely to be affected than men. The patient referred herein for treatment also happens to be a woman aged 40. This being an auto-immune disease, affects small joints of the hand and feet. If severe, it reduces life expectancy by 6-10 years as a result of co-morbidity through cardio-vascular diseases or side effects from treatment (Home & Carr, n.d.) The disease reduces the affected person’s work life by five years. Its annual cost to the U.K. economy is estimated to be between ? 3.8 and ? 4.75 billion (NationalAuditOffice, 2009). There are many institutions engaged in the care of RA with their own guidelines for treatment. British Society for Rheumatology (BSR, (n.d)),NHS (NHS, n.d.), National Rheumatoid Arthritis Society (NRAS) (NRAS, n.d.), The Society of Chiropodists and Podiatrists (SCPOD, n .d.), The Musculoskeletal Services Framework (DeptOfHealth, 2006), NSF long-term conditions (DeptOfHealth, Department of Health, 2005), 18 week commissioning pathway (DeptOfHealth, Department of Health, 2006) and Podiatry rheumatic care associations (PodiatryRheumaticCareAssociation, n.d.) are the major sources of standards of care for RA conditions. They are complementary to one another and it is worthwhile referring to all of them while dealing with the patient affected by RA. Brief outline of care Two of the inevitable symptoms RA are joint pain and stiffness that manifest in the foot and ankle in the early stages. These symptoms also change during the course of progression of the disease (Helliwell, 2006). Since rheumatoid arthritis is not curable, the aim of care is to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life for the patient. Although multidisciplinary approach is resorted to, therapeutic interventions are the responsibility of rheumatoid specialist professionals. The patie nt involvement and empowerment are desirable for a successful outcome with the patient coping up with the course of treatment and lifestyle adaptations (Alexander, Fawcett, & Runcinman, 2006). For control of pain, analgesics such as paracetamol/aspirin, compound analgesics such as cocodamol to NSAIDs can be administered. Since NSAIDs are associated with gastrointestinal side-effects, cyclo-oxygenase (Cox) II group of NSAIDs are recommended so that side effects are at minimal levels. (Alexander, Fawce

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

International Hospitality Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

International Hospitality Analysis - Essay Example The sector has been through several upheavals. When the economic performs well the consumer confidence is high and people are keen to spend their disposable incomes on holidays and easting out. As the same time, the sector is also sensitive to unforeseen events beyond its control – like threats of terrorist attacks, foot or mouth crisis and the bird-flu outbreak (LSC 2006). In addition, there are other drivers of change which include minimum wage and holiday entitlement, health and safety, no-smoking legislation. The economy becomes affected due to changes in legislation, changing market forces, and periods of recession and inflation (Wilson et al. 1997). In fact everything from the impact of globalization to consumer savings can impact this sector. Hospitality is the fastest growing industry and exhibits tremendous diversity both with respect to the types of job available and the workers. As far as the human resource is concerned, there is a huge demand in the sector but the availability of staff is difficult. This sector is characterized by low rates of pay, high staff turnover, low levels of training, low skills levels, unsocial hours, seasonal nature of work, predominance of casual staff, and the non-professional image of the industry (LSC 2006). This sector traditionally recruits a young workforce yet the biggest challenge that this sector faces is that of skills shortages. The local people are reluctant to enter this sector because of low wages and job uncertainties. The hospitality sector in the developed countries is facing labor shortages and can expect to face even greater shortages in the future (Choi et al. 2000). As per the economic law of supply and demand, this means that the sector needs to offer higher wages to attract skilled staff as there is short supply of staff. If the sector offers higher wages, the profitability is affected specially during economic downturn. As such the hospitality managers need to prepare themselves for the future. In

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Managing financial resources and development editing Essay

Managing financial resources and development editing - Essay Example The company can also increase or improve on its sales so that however much the payments are, the receipts will still be more in order to for the company to meet its current liabilities Net Present Value is the difference between the present value of the cash inflows and the present value of the net outflows. Project cash flows are discounted using an appropriate rate, which is the minimum rate of return required by the investor. In the case of these two projects; Alpha and Beta projects, the discounting rate is 10% which is used to calculate the discounting factors with the formula 1/(1 + r)n where r is the discounting rate and n is the number of years. The appropriate cash flows are the after tax cash flows, therefore the net cash flows should be estimated on the after tax basis. However, in these projects, there was no tax involved and no project had a residual value after the completion period of 5 years. Computation of cash flows requires a special treatment of non-cash expenses such as depreciation though in these projects, there is no depreciation considered. However, in case of depreciation, it has an indirect effect on the cash flow since it is a tax deduc tion expense. The general criteria for Net Present Value is that the project with a negative net present value should be undertaken since it increases the wealth of the shareholders and a project with a negative net present value should not be undertaken since it reduces the wealth of the shareholders. In a case where the manager is faced with several projects and would like to choose one to implement, then the net present values of all the projects will be calculated and compared. The project with the highest net present value should be preferred to the others with low net present value. Considering these two projects: the project Alpha and project Beta, both the projects will last for 5 years and will have a discounting rate of

Monday, October 14, 2019

African creation myths Essay Example for Free

African creation myths Essay 1. Perhaps the answer that would best suit the question why life is so hard and then you die is how death is portrayed in these stories. There is suffering and hardship in one’s life because of disobedience of the hardships and commands of his gods. Death ultimately becomes the only â€Å"salvation† after so much hardship.   Had the living things and man obeyed the orders of their god, death would not have overcome these lives. In the story of the Plant of Life, the second wife, in her jealousy of not being considered by her husband despite the death of the first wife decided that in order to end her suffering must kill the plant that has taken the time and affection that would have been hers. Hence, ultimately, it is no wonder that in the end, the wife bears the consequent death of all living things. 2.  Ã‚   Basically these African myths hold women in the same way that women are being viewed today. Women are seen as being responsible for the ills that happened to society and life in general.   For example, in the story of the Plant of Life, the second wife was blamed for being the source of death when â€Å"she saw the plant and was jealous and cut it down with a hoe.† (Plant of Life). Such story shows how of little value women are because if the god did not play favourites among his wives, the story would not have ended that way. As a whole, women are viewed as being the cause of tragedies. 3. This myth basically starts out as a story of creation of the world and its five elements.   However, as the story intertwined itself it became a story not of creation but of destruction as each element became defeated by the other until at last Doondari, the god who created these things came down to earth and became the eternal one.   A very good point of interest here is how the story incorporated the attributes of men like sleep, blindness, worry and death and how these attributes became defeated when all of them became proud. It would seem that the writer wanted to emphasize that pride became the reason for the fall of its attributes and in the end, it was the god who has to put everything in its place. 4. One interesting thing about this myth is how Shida Matunda got afraid when the jealous wife killed the plant which what became of his favorite wife when she died. He is a god and yet he had no hold over life when in fact, he created the world and its living things. It would seem that as a god, he too depended on â€Å"higher beings† than himself and that he attributes life on these beings such as the plant which became the plant of life. 5. Between the myth of the Disobedience of Man and the story of creation in Genesis, one common factor emerges as to why one man disobeyed his Creator.   In this African myth, the root of the disobedience is the woman who failed to follow the orders of her god not to till the soil for food while in Genesis, Eve did not take heed in God’s warning not to eat the Forbidden fruit lest they will be punished. Hence, when they disobeyed the order of their gods, they were punished: the first beings in this African myth were sent with Death while Adam and Eve were banished out of the paradise that God created for them. 6. Indeed there is a great similarity between the myth Revolt Against God and the great Flood in Genesis although the manner of wiping out the face of the earth vastly differs with the version in Genesis.   In the myth of the Revolt against God, the gods wiped out the earth through fire whereas in the version of Genesis, the world was wiped out by the Great Flood.   Perhaps the reason why there is a similarity between the two stories is because we all came from the same roots.   Just like in the religions of   Christianity and Islam that traces its roots to Abraham, these stories of cleansing the earth may have also come from one original source and just branched out after generations of passing it. 7.   Ã‚  The gods in these African myths are not at all like gods but rather seemed like counterparts of men.   Although they have created the world, the living things and men, they never ceased to be like human beings who still feel the emotions of human beings or maybe they are simply reflections of the image and likeness of the beings they have created.   However, these African gods tend to be fickle-minded sometimes and would do whatever they feel like doing at the heat of the moment and that analyzing these myths, one can surmise that they are just exercising their power over their creations.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Importance Of The Nile River For Egypt

Importance Of The Nile River For Egypt Water pollution is the presence of any substances in water which can be harmful for plants and animals that live in water or people who use it. In other word it is the change in the chemical or physical properties of the water and this change can lead to cause damage and health hazards to animals and plants that live inside it or organisms that use it. (1) Importance of the Nile River for Egypt The Nile River is the primary water resource in Egypt, where it represents more than 95% of the total water resources in Egypt and it is the lifeline for Egypt and there are many reasons for its importance which are: Egyptians depends on it to acquire fresh water to use it for various purposes such as drinking, cooking, cleaning and other household uses. Use it for agriculture where fertile land formed around the Nile River and they irrigated by Nile River. The Nile River is an important source of fish. It is used in water transportation because it passes from south to north Egypt. Industry in Egypt depends a lot on the waters of the Nile River. Recently after the construction of the High Dam became the Nile River is an important source for generating electricity to Egypt. (2) (1) (2) Causes of pollution There are many sources of water pollution in Nile River. Industry Wastewater: Industry is an important user of water. In same time is an important producer of pollution. Water is very important in industry. Water demand for industry was 3.6 Billion Cubic Meters BCM/year in 2000. And they expect to be 5.5 Billion Cubic Meters BCM/year in 2017. So, when industry increases, the water demands increase.(1) Municipal Wastewater In the city, the water which used by people going down through various treatment processes to make it healthy as possible before release it back to environment. Treating water is help to minimize the negative effects of wastewater on the environment. However, some poor cities along Nile River cannot use treatment facilities which are expensive for them. The only way they can use it is dumped in the river without treated. (2) Statistics show that, all governments generate 3.5 Billion Cubic Meters BCM/year of wastewater. Of these wastewater 1.6 Billion Cubic Meters BCM/year receives treatment. In 2017, 1.7 Billion Cubic Meters BCM/year will receive treatment. Although the capacity will increase but it will not be able to covers all wastewater. As it is show in table (1) the number of people serves increase and number of people not served increase because increasing in population. (3) So, it will not be able to decline the amount of wastewater that is not receiving treatment. (1) Agriculture Wastewater Agriculture is larger consumer of water. And it is in same time contributed in water pollution. Runoff from the agricultural sector frequently contains pollutants that may have an adverse effect on the river. Pollutants such as salts, nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen, and pesticide residue can be found in this runoff. Agricultural runoff often is a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“non-pointà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  pollutant, in that it can come from anywhere in a region, and not from a specific drain. This can make it difficult to There are also problems associated with agricultural runoff seeping into the groundwater as well. (2) Effect of population There are many effect of Nile river pollution. Some of these effects are: The presence of oil on the surface of the river works as a buffer between the sun and the plants. This leads to death of fish and Lack of food for humans. In addition, that will decrease the number of fishermen à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Many fishermen have either left their jobs altogether or migrated,à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  el-Fikky said. (3) The solid waste thrown in the river hinder the movement of fishermen net and torn nets which reduces the amount of fish and increase the cost on the fishermen. Saed said he usually catches 2kg of fish a day that equal to US$165 a month, but over the past few months he has had an additional headache: his net needs replacing not every month as in the past but every few days, costing him up to $144 a month. The Nile river is source for drinking but because it polluted by human that could cause a harmful effect on human and cause a dangerous diseases. Not only for people whose drink from it but also for people who eat fish or plant from it. (1) Abstract Water pollution is a serious problem for the all world. And it is considered to be one of the most harmful problems affecting Egypt. The pollution of Nile River is increase especial in the past few decades. Although the Egyptians love the Nile River a lot and it is important for them, not only in economic terms but it has a significant meaning for them. But this did not protect it from pollution. In this report I will explain the meaning of water pollution. Then, I will take about the important of Nile River. After that, I will talk about causes of Nile River pollution which are industry wastewater, municipal wastewater and agriculture wastewater. Final, I will take about effect of Nile River pollution. Introduction Water covers more than two thirds of the Earths surface; and the rest taken up by land. When the population are increase, the demand for water sources are increase. One of these fresh water resources is Nile River. As we know water is essential for life. No organism can live without it. Water pollution is problem effect human, animals and plants. And it caused by different resource. In these report I will try to find the main causes of water pollution in Nile River and the effect of that pollution. Summary In the summary, as you see all water pollution in Nile rive and in any place in the world created by human and then he try again to solve it what he already create. I advice all people to maintain the environment. And keep the water clean. Conclusion In conclusion, I learn from these report that human create problem. Then, it is adversely affecting our life. For that, I think that the maintain of the environment is a joint operation between all members of the community. UAE University Faculty of Science Department of Biology Principles of Environmental Science Done by: Shaikha Mohammed. ID: 201003128. Instructor: Dr. Tarek Youssef.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

A Jungian Analysis of the Epic of Gilgamesh Essay -- Epic Gilgamesh es

A Jungian Analysis of the Epic of Gilgamesh   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This paper will provide a unique, psychological perspective on a timeless story that is alive with mythological and religious splendor. I must state clearly that this is not the first time that Gilgamesh has been viewed in the light of the philosophy of Jung.   One of two Jung essays I happened upon while preparing my research was the Psychology of Religion. Although I initially felt that this source would provide little help with my paper, I was very mistaken. On the seventeenth page, I have discovered Jung directly referencing Gilgamesh himself. While researching, I consulted the many translations of Gilgamesh found on the web. It seemed that the more sources I sought, the greater the amount of differing opinions and convoluted versions I uncovered. In an effort to remain true to the epic, I will mainly be referring to the book, World Mythology, written by Donna Rosenberg with a few inclusions from Kovacs' translations. Although Rosenberg's version lacks the flair of the latter, it provides a simple doorway opening to a complicated, yet profound, tale of the first great epic that brings time, mortality, and the anguish of humanity into a world of personal destiny basically related to our own (Campbell, OM, p. 87-90). The essay is written with the understanding that the reader has prior knowledge of the main subject matter, Dr. Carl Jung's theories of the unconscious, and Joseph Campbell's idea that myths are synchronistically reproduced across time. Archaeologists and historians feel confident that Gilgamesh was originally written by the Sumerians and later adapted by the Babylonians who kept the identities of Sumer's original gods and goddesses. According to Mauree... .... (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989) Jackson, Danny P.,ed. The Epic of Gilgamesh. Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci, 1992. Maier, John ed. Gilgamesh. A Reader. Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci, 1997. Mason, Herbert. Gilgamesh. A Verse Narrative. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970. Sandars, Nancy K. The Epic of Gilgamesh. Harmmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1968, 1971. Temple, Robert, He Who Saw Everything: A Verse Version of the Epic of Gilgamesh. London: Rider, 1991 Thompson, R. Campbell. Gilgamesh: Text, Translation, and Notes. Oxford: Clarendon, 1930. Campbell, Joseph. The Masks of God: Creative Mythology. New York: Penguin Books, 1968, pp. 4-14, 78-79. Campbell, Joseph. The Masks of God: Occidental Mythology. New York: Penguin Books, 1964, pp. 9-10, 87-92.   Woolley, C. Leonard. THE SUMERIANS. New York: AMS PRESS, INC., 1970, p. 22.   

Friday, October 11, 2019

Rci Master Distributors

RCI Master Distributor Evolution of Supplier Relationships 9/16/2012 Group 3 PHILIP CORRADINI (IE/15/009) KAMALIKA GANGOLY (PGP/15/019) S. SIDDHARTH (PGP/15/048) DEVINA BHASKAR (PGP/15/082) APOORVA GOYAL (PGP/15/130) MADHURI MUKHERJEE (PGP/15/155) AMARENDRA (PGP/15/202) DHANANJAY JANARTHANAN (PGP/15/216) GAUTAM S (PGP/15/277) S. HARIPRASAD (PGP/15/314) HISTORY OF RCI 1946 – Mark Schwartz founded a motor repair business and secured a GE franchise for component parts. He was instrumental in bringing about a service innovation by exchanging fully working motors with customers who came in for repairs of their broken down motors.He then repaired them and replenished his motor inventory. 1962- GE’s General Purpose Control operation developed a new contactor for its air-conditioning and refrigeration business. Mark Schwartz attained the rights to exclusively distribute these contactors to the aftermarket through air-conditioning and refrigeration wholesalers. 1963 – RCI had demonstrated to GE that they could get GE’s products to market, with the parts moving from master distributors to wholesalers and ultimately service repair persons. RCI also worked in the direction of providing new innovations in terms of packing and product innovations as well.Mark Swartz worked with GE engineers and through this inputs in developing innovations, RCI continued to distribute these models exclusively. 1974 – Danny Swartz takes more responsibility and starts taking all the day-to-day business decisions. Some of the key values which RCI followed were * Working by developing a relationship of trust and faith with suppliers. They did not have any formally drawn contracts. * Demonstrating to the suppliers how difficult distribution was and how RCI’s competencies could not be replicated. CURRENT SYSTEM The current position of RCI was as follows:RCI distributed over 6000 electrical and related products earning revenue of $ 35. 8 million and with op erating profits of $ 3 million. RCI plays the role of a master distributor i. e. it sells to air-conditioning and refrigeration wholesalers who in turn sell to air conditioning and refrigeration contractors and repair houses. Their role is essentially restricted to the aftermarket channel for repair parts. RCI’S SALES PROCESS RCI uses a network of independent manufacturer’s reps. who were 45 in numbers and from 14 companies. The average commission received by them was 3. % and usually do not carry competing lines. RCI operated five warehouses which were electronically linked and operated on real-time inventory basis. RCI’s strength was in commercial refrigeration and air-conditioning business where price was secondary in some cases and reliability was more revered. Manufacturers of Electronic Components Ex: GE, Texas Instrument, Honeywell, Emerson W. W. Grainger Wholesale/ Distributor 330 Outlets Master Distributors e. g. , RCI, Steveco, Brownell, GEM Appliance Equipment Manufacturers e. g. , GE, Amana, Trane Air-conditioning, Refrigeration and Appliance Wholesalers approx 1250 with 4000 branches) Repair and Service Houses (approx. 10,000) Appliance Retail Dealers Consumers Overview of Industry Channel Structure Conflicts with GE GE Appliance and control: Loss of exclusivity In 1976, RCI first lost its exclusivity for cold controls to GEM which started selling 10 times the volume of cold controls as compared to RCI. GE Appliance and control was not very confident with Mark Schwartz who had only 3 years of distribution business experience. GEM’s success led to gradual loss of exclusivity of PCI over other products.GE appliance and control used ‘Coercive power’ against RCI because the latter was not able to increase the sales volume as desired by the former. Listed below are the outcomes of GE Motors’s distribution channel study:- a. Master distributors were gradually becoming inefficient and ineffective in managin g inventories, product knowledge and providing merchandising support. b. Master distributors were being bypassed by suppliers who were selling products directly to wholesalers. c. The wholesalers were getting products at prices 5-17% lower than GE’s master distributors from GE’s competitors selling directly to them. . Master distributors started losing share of sales to manufacturers selling directly to wholesalers. GE Motors hence decided to keep master distributors but proposed to sell directly to top 10 wholesalers, a proposal that would have given RCI a very serious blow. But RCI threatened GE motors to take back existing inventories with them, billing them for catalogue printing and distribution cost and refused any kind of repair service which meant end of the relationship. RCI had been in this business for a very long time and its innovative ideas were not being imitated by competitors as effectively as they could.The threat resulted in GE scrapping the proposal . This showcases the use of ‘Expert power’ by RCI owing to its expertise in distribution channel. This time around GE wanted to bypass RCI and remove its exclusivity by selling its products to WW Grainger who was a distributer/wholesaler (that too, a large one). This was esp. in the case of ‘design and control relay’ which had been mastered by Mark Schwartz for GE under the RCI banner. We could say this was GE’s display of ‘Legitimate Power’ as it was looking out for options which could have brought in more sales volume to GE.RCI established itself as a standard in low cost ‘lower end two pole devices’ – a #2 seller only next to Honeywell in retaliation to GE not reducing its price or developing a low cost product for the low end device by tying up with Component Manufacturing Seeing this GE approaches RCI to distribute its low cost private label for the lower end of the business. This behavior or GE was due to RCI es tablishing itself as a reference in Lower end two pole device which can be seen as RCI’s ‘Referent Power’. Post the death of Mark Schwartz GE wanted to eliminate the Master Distributers completely.Danny threatened to drop the GE Line completely and add in competitors’ line. GE yielded to this seeing the revenue from RCI as a bird in hand better than two in the bush where it had to develop newer channel partners. Thus in this case we can say that RCI exhibited ‘Reward Power’ RCI – GEM Difficult period in 1986: The demise of Mark Swartz left Danny Schwartz in charge of RCI for the first time. There was decline in sales for the first time in 1986 since 1971. There was also a major drop in the profits. Danny feared of making a loss due to these reasons.This led to questions whether RCI be able to handle this transition. The following were the threats faced by Danny Schwartz: GE acquiring GEM: GE bought GEM products in the year 1986, who is a competitor distributor to RCI. Implications of GE takeover of GEM: GE could internally lower price to GEM as it was only an internal transfer price. If this happens then GEM could sell at a lower price than RCI. And if GEM turns out to be profitable, GE could eliminate RCI as its distributor. Danny Schwartz remarked that this was the worst time of his life. GE’s relations with Grainger:Grainger was an integrated distributor/wholesaler franchise with 330 wholesale outlets that were served by its own captive distributor. It had significant buying power at the manufacturer. Grainger though was not a direct competitor to RCI. But it was competitor to the customers of RCI, the other wholesalers. Because of its strong influence on the consumers, the customers who went to Grainger to make a purchase would continue to buy in Grainger thereby pulling away business from the other wholesalers who are RCI customers. This way Grainger causes a serious threat to RCI.Pricing policy for OE Ms: OEMs were also reselling parts of the products. Due to their huge volume of buying, the OEMs were able to purchase GE motors components at discount about 25%. This would imply that price of a component purchased by RCI at 25$ would cost only 20$ to OEMs. Response by RCI: Danny struck a deal with A. O. Smith to make top 25 models of products under RCI Label. GE cautioned by Danny’s attempt of distributing a â€Å"fighting brand† by reducing its price from 25$ to 21$. It then distributed the A. O. Smith models to the areas where GE sales were weak.THE CRITICAL ARMS OF THE RCI BUSINESS Customers For RCI, the customers are the wholesalers. Their biggest asset is the strong relationships they have built with their customers, which is primarily a result of their performance, and is also somewhat based on their social interactions and experiences with each other. RCI tries to re-educate customers in a way that is advantageous for them, mainly by convincing them that small shipments are better, which increases their reliance on RCI. They offer two pre season specials in which they give extended terms and rebates based on the quantities purchased.This is contradictory to their philosophy of encouraging small shipments; however, it keeps the customers’ warehouses loaded, leaving lesser space for competitor’s products. Suppliers Managing suppliers is a major task for RCI. This is achieved, firstly, by purchasing in volumes, and secondly, by maintaining strong social relationships. Social relationships are maintained at a personal level with individuals by making suppliers comfortable in visiting them or having RCI people visit them, socialising, and working together.However, the downside of maintaining personal relationships is seen when the advocate at the supplier’s end moves to a new job. At that juncture it becomes difficult because a new relationship needs to be developed with his successor or boss or other people in the concer ned department. Operations RCI has faced problems at various ends, many a times by losing exclusivity or their suppliers’ share to competitors. However their competitors have mostly failed with the products they were given. RCI has been able to maintain a significant share in all products except the cold controls which was the first product they lost exclusivity on to GEM.RCI tries to accommodate the needs of each major customer by structuring different deals for them. The RCI business is a relatively small part of their customers’ overall business and they make large gross margins on their products. RCI represents not more than 5-10% of their customers’ business even if they have about 80% market share in the products they supply. As a result, their reliance on RCI is low. However, they want their customers to get hooked on to them by regularly placing small orders. Manufacturer’s Reps The reps cultivate and maintain personal relationships with customers .They are the first point of contact for the customer due to the relationships that they build. In addition they provide ‘One stop shopping’ for the customers by allowing them to choose from a broad line of products from various manufacturers. The master distributor lacks the manpower or the capability to deal with individual customers and negotiate with them on price or quantity. This factor prevents manufacturers from entering the distribution business directly as he would face the same challenges. While dealing with individual reps the master distributor has significant power as RCI for instance accounts for 50-70% of its rep’s income.This allows them to be demanding in their expectations from the reps. However at the same time RCI ensures that it makes its payments on time and that it does not cheat its reps out of their commissions. The reps situation appears to be fragile as it can be seen from the case that 75% of the rep companies have come on in the last ten years. In case a particular rep does not perform up to expectations or if he is outsourcing the work to other reps RCI is prompt in getting rid of him. This ensures that only competent salesmen remain. Threats The primary threat faced is the consolidation of customers.This results in a loss of income in the following ways. The manufacturers decide to deal with the consolidated customers directly through their captive distribution divisions leaving out the master distributor entirely. This process also forces existing wholesalers to consolidate or quit the business entirely thereby severing the relationship they have with the master distributor. Upon consolidating customers start centralized distribution warehouses and thereby eliminate the need for specialized services that RCI provides such as rapid delivery.Although margins have remained constant prices have dropped throughout the industry. Acting upon the lower base prices the gross margin dollars of RCI has decreased over t ime. Other problems faced include a growing increase in expenses on account of inflation, increased wages and other costs. At a time of constant margins this ends up affecting the bottom line. OEMs’ have a different relationship with manufactures due to the large volumes they provide. These volumes enable them to purchase parts at a significantly lower rate than independent replacement part distributors.This lowers the value of the assets that these replacement part distributors provide but enables them to capture a greater share of the OEM aftermarket share. OEM’s are also starting in-house aftermarket distributors by using the price discounts that they receive from manufacturers. This could be a major threat in the long run as the only thing preventing the growth of these firms is the belief that manufacturers would not allow the same product to be sold to two different customers performing the same function at two different prices.RCI competes with such firms on the basis of its credibility and service that it provides. It provides a broad product line and better packaging with instructions and labels at a cost effective rate. Manufacturers prefer selling to companies like RCI as their margins would be higher. The long term attractiveness of RCI’s business is also decreasing due to the fact that prices are margins are being eroded in the long run.

Thursday, October 10, 2019


Objective: 1. Provide knowledge of computer communications from user point of view in the context of local area network. 2. Explain the basic concepts of communications within Local Area Network with emphasis on access techniques and basic protocol. 3. Providing user services Assignment Overview: * This is an individual assignment * The student must produce a written report and must be submitted on the dateline * The student expected to present the assignment Question:You are a network engineer at a private office. You are required to produce a proposal to the upper management. in order to install a new network infrastructure for a new detachment of the office. You need to obtain the information as accurate as possible to the specification released by our superior. your work include of identifying router, gateway, bridge and switches according to the minimum specification given. Specification according to the proposed network devices: device| specification| outer| * Able to support f lexible and adaptive infrastructure * Support for layer 2 and layer 3 * IP/MPLS traffic engineering support * 8 copper GbE(10/100/1000)interface * Support 3G/4G * Support PoE,10GbE| gateway| * Simplifies sparing strategy for operators even they use variety of backhaul * Technologies (DSL, Ethernet, T1/E1 and so on) across their network. * Allow operators to choose clocking strategy of their choice: T1/E1, line timing or BITS. Transport ATM,TDM * Packet traffic over IP/MPLS| bridge| * 24 to 48 10/100/1000BAsE-T ports * Fixed panel Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) to support high speed backbone or link aggregation| switch| * Support level2 and level 3 * Throughput capability is more than 1. 28 Tbps * Port able to support from 1GbE to 10GbE| 1. By referring to the specification above, suggest and identify the type of network device that fulfilled the requirements as stated. 2. The hosen device need to be identified with its feature and the interoperability with the specification stated above. 3. Each of the features of the devices needs to be explained in terms of user perspective and the jargon should be carefully breakdown into concise description. 4. Include the picture of the devices in the report. 5. Explain the reason why you choose the particular network device and compare it with the specification. If the chosen network device do not met the requirements, please provide the appropriate justification.

Reasons of Accidents and the Ways of Reducing Accidents

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 1. Definition of Total Quality Management (TQM) There are numerous, widespread, diverse and often fashionable initiatives that potentially help manufacturing organisations in implementing various best practices in operations management. Examples of these initiatives include total productive maintenance (TPM), total quality management (TQM), Kanban, 5S, six sigma, Kaizen and business process re-engineering (BPR) (Ashutosh Tiwari, 2007).These criteria is a success stories to implement in this initiatives and make everything is going well. Critical factor in the success of operations management projects is a fast but comprehensive analysis of the current practices or structure in the company (Ashutosh Tiwari, 2007). Table 2: Definition of Japanese Terms. Initiative |Core Ideas | |5S |Organisation and housekeeping (Hirano, 1996) | |TPM |Continuous improvement of equipment and processes (Campbell, 1995) | |TQM |Right first time (Oakland, 2003) | |Six sigma |Sy stematic and continuous improvement (Pande, 2001) | |JIT (Kanban) |Remove inventory buffers that prevent learning (Ono, 1988) | |Kaizen |Cost reduction through the elimination of waste (Imai, 1986) | |BPR |Reduction of complexity of workflow (Hammer, 2001) | Total Quality Management (TQM) has been accepted as a disciplined management process in industry in order to cope with the changes in marketplace and to focus on quality in both their products as well as their services (Venkatraman, 2007). While applying TQM philosophy to their organisations, some managers think that quality is driven by internal productivity programs or participative management programs which may deviate from their core business and customer focus resulting in cost overruns. But this is wrong perception by managers because with TQM all the process and product quality increasing and achieve â€Å"zero defect† purpose.However, quality cannot be inspected into an individual unit of the product after it has been made. The practice of inspecting products after they are made has, therefore, been replaced rapidly by the broader view that quality must be built into a product, from the design stage through all subsequent stages of manufacture and assembly. Because products are made by using several manufacturing processes, each of which can have significant variations in its performance even within a short period of time, the control of processes is a critical factor in product quality. Thus the objective should be to control processes not products. Quality has various meanings attached and the focus varies from one educational setting to another.Among the various elements of TQM, customer focus, process orientation and continuous improvements are the most common philosophies that have direct implications for teaching and learning in higher education (Venkatraman, 2007). The general definition of total quality management (TQM) as a philosophy that would enable an organisation consistently t o meet the needs of customers is accepted worldwide by manufacturing executives as a strategic concept for organisational survival. However, reaching the TQM destination is a continuing challenge for manufacturing executives (Nwabueze, An Industry Betrayed: the case of total quality management in manufacturing, 2011).Deming notes that everyone in the organisation from top to bottom, from office to technical services, from headquarters to local sites must be involved. He further suggested that people are the source of ideas and innovation, therefore, their expertise, experience, knowledge and sense of duty have to be harnessed to the benefit of the organisation (Nwabueze, An Industry Betrayed: the case of total quality management in manufacturing, 2011). Total quality management (TQM) principles and techniques are now a well accepted part of almost every manager's â€Å"tool kit’’ (Dow, 1999). Quality is to satisfy customers' requirements continuously; total quality is to achieve quality at low cost and TQM is to obtain total quality by involving everyone's daily commitment (W. H. Ip, 1999).Henderson gives a definition on TQM to include (Henderson, 1992): a) Total means: everyone in every function within the company accepts responsibility for the quality of his own output; b) Quality means: conformance to agreed customer requirements; and c) Management means: for any major business strategy, it is management led but with a strong involvement of employees. TQM has been described as a new model of thinking in business management, a comprehensive style to improve organizational performance and quality an alternative to the â€Å"management by control† and more recently, as a change of paradigm (Fco. Javier Llore? ns Montes, 2003).TQM is one of the numerous forms of management models or concepts that emerged and took form during the 1980s and 1990s, maybe even the most commonly used concept during this period. Management concept is not only th e toolkit for â€Å"trouble shooting† and improving organisation efficiency, but can also be seen as a symbol giving the organisations higher credibility. (Harnesk, 2007) Examination of the applicability of TQM concepts to product and service organisations suggests that there is evidence of greater ease of adoption, and more apparent success, within product based companies than with service based organisations, though there is no reason in principle why this should be so. A service organisation is as much dependant on satisfying its customers as a product company, if not more so.A service organisation such as an airline will be vulnerable to immediate customer dissatisfaction with such inadequacies of performance as lateness of arrival, off-handedness of staff and the disappearance of luggage. (Reavill, 1999) This sortie into the area of marketing mature products brings us back to the points flagged at the beginning of this paper, the small/ medium sized enterprises (SMEs), a nd the newly industrialised countries (NICs). With a mature product, a marketing strategy would be to increase the share of the current market, and to find new markets. (Reavill, New applications for TQM, 1999) There is also other development connected to TQM. TQM is a concept that has traditionally been connected to business life, commercial and industrial organizations for manufacturing and production.However, the domain of TQM is changing, and TQM has been applied also to public issues. Research has been conducted in the area of managing the third sector, such as non-profit organizations (Hudson, 1995; Lyons, 2001; Nutt and Backoff, 1992; Mertens, 1999). Reavill (1999) discusses the current status and possible future of TQM as a major management concept. Consequently, the different views of the evolution of TQM and the different views of the definitions of TQM generate problems both for those practitioners who are applying TQM, and for those theorists who are studying TQM. There are consequences when discussing the effectiveness, use and utility of TQM.The development of TQM implies new definitions, or modifications of existing definitions, for instance, the interpretation of the word customer. (Bjarne Bergquist, 2005) One of the main goals of a business is to stay in business and to be profitable to its owners. Other goals may be that the work environment should be good, that customers are satisfied, that the company has a good reputation and provides jobs. If the business is a loss, the other goals are of little value, as the business will go bankrupt. The big question for companies about to implement new strategies or working methods is thus often â€Å"Will it pay? † This is a difficult question to answer, but some have tried. Bjarne Bergquist, TQM and results as profit in commercial organizations, 2005) When studying the criticism against the use of TQM in the education sector, it seems that it can be divided into at least two different forms an d that the criticism emanates from different perspectives. One of these forms is the criticism of the transfer of concepts from one context to another. One example is the introduction of methods and adaptation to ways of thinking and values that were developed in goods producing companies. Another form of criticism is also connected to the transfer of TQM to a new area, but also based upon an ideological view. In this paper the use of TQM in educational organizations is seen as a part of an economization within the education area. Bjarne Bergquist, TQM in the educational sector, 2005) Increased customer sophistication and the globalization of business activities are forcing business organizations to re-engineer their cultures, operations and systems to support customer-focused and quality-driven competitive business strategies. Manufacturing organizations have successfully deployed total quality management (TQM) practices in support of strategic choices (Spitzer, 1993; Flynn et al. , 1995; Au and Choi, 1999; Tata and Prasad, 1998; Prajogo and Sohal, 2001; Powell, 1995). In this context, however, service organizations are still lagging behind their manufacturing counterparts in terms of their strategic commitment to TQM (Au and Choi, 1999; Dotzour and Lengnick-Hall, 1996; Sohal, 1994; Shortell et al. , 1995).The apparent reluctance of service organizations to utilize TQM based-strategies is alarming, especially in light of the increased significance of the service sector to national and global economies. (Mahmoud M. Yasin, 2004) [pic] Figure 1 A conceptual framework for TQM implementation and benefit in a service operational setting (Mahmoud M. Yasin, 2004) What is quality? There are various well-known definitions of quality. (Crosby, 1979) define quality as â€Å"conformance to requirement† while (Juran, 1980) define quality as â€Å"fitness for use†. Quality as â€Å"a predictable degree of uniformity and dependability at low cost and suited to the market† is more towards quality in operation (Deming, 1986).Many organisations found that the old definition of quality, â€Å"the degree of conformance to a standard†, was too narrow and consequently have started to use a new definition of quality in terms of â€Å"customer focus†. It is reported that many companies had initially concentrated all their efforts on improving internal processes with little or no regard for the relationships between those processes and the organization’s ultimate customers. This failure to include the customer focus had resulted in companies struggling hard to survive and resorting to fire-fighting situations. (Fincher, 1994) describe how quality perspectives have evolved in higher education over the years by going through a shift from experience to technique to style and finally to process.Quality as overall is to achieve customer needs and demand where must start in the beginning process of manufacturing to meet the re quirement and fit with the machine capability to get the quality output and of course should meet the standard of conformance. Quality has a variety of meanings and it range of meanings that will confusing each individual’s perception of quality but the important things is to achieve customer needs and satisfaction. Quality also as a key attribute that customers use to evaluate products and services which has emerged as a vital point of management focus in many parts of the world. The emergence of quality as a top priority in many corporate entities is primarily due to the globalisation of world trade and the competitive pressure brought about by the escalating demands of consumers, who want better products and services (Zairi, 2001).Quality is the increased awareness of senior executives, who have begun recognising that quality is a key strategic issue and an important focus for all levels of the organisation (Crosby P. , 2001). The implication of Dr Weller's action suggest that the chief executive's attitude to TQM must be â€Å"hands on† (Nwabueze, 2001). Because our attitudes greatly influence people around us, management's attitude tells employees what is expected of them and what they can get away with. On the basis of my analysis, a new model of leadership requirements for TQM in healthcare is proposed, can see Figure 1. (Nwabueze, Chief executives  ± hear thyselves: leadership requirements for 5-S/TQM implementation in healthcare, 2001) [pic] Figure 1: Model of leadership requirements for TQM in healthcare. Nwabueze, Chief executives  ± hear thyselves: leadership requirements for 5-S/TQM implementation in healthcare, 2001) Works Cited Ashutosh Tiwari, C. T. (2007). A framework for implementing cost and quality practices within manufacturing. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Managemen , 732. Bjarne Bergquist, M. F. (2005). TQM: terrific quality marvel or tragic quality malpractice? , 311. Bjarne Bergquist, M. F. (2005). TQM and resu lts as profit in commercial organizations. TQM: terrific quality marvel or tragic quality malpractice? , 312. Campbell, J. (1995). Uptime: Strategies for Excellence in Maintenance Management (Step-by-step Approach to TPM Implementation). Productivity Press Inc. , 733. Crosby, P. (2001).Let's Talk Quality: 96 Questions that You Always Wanted to Ask Phil Crosby. 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(1996). 5S for Operators: 5 Pillars of the Visual Workplace (for your Organization! ). Productivity Press Inc. , 733. Imai, M. (1986). Kaizen: The Key to Japan’s Competitive Success. McGraw-Hill , 733. Juran, J. a. (1980). Quality Planning and Analysis. McGraw-Hill , 94.Nwabueze, U. (2011). An Industry Betrayed: the case of total quality management in manufacturing. The TQM Magazine , 400. Nwabueze, U. (2001). Chief executives  ± hear thyselves: leadership requirements for 5-S/TQM implementation in healthcare. Managerial Auditing Journal , 407. Nwabueze, U. (2001). Chief executives  ± hear thyselves: leadership requirements for 5-S/TQM implem entation in healthcare. Managerial Auditing Journal , 409. Oakland, J. (2003). TQM: Text with Cases. Butterworth-Heinemann , 733. Ono, T. a. (1988). Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-scale Production. Productivity Press Inc. , 733. Pande, P. a. (2001). What is Six Sigma?McGraw-Hill , 733. Reavill, L. R. (1999). New applications for TQM. What is the future direction of TQM development? , 296. Reavill, L. R. (1999). TQM, an established management. What is the future direction of TQM development? , 292 -293. Venkatraman, S. (2007). A framework for implementing TQM in higher education programs. Quality Assurance in Education , 93. W. H. Ip, K. C. (1999). Enhancing Manufacturing Information Management Through TQM. Logistics Information Management , 315. Zairi, T. T. (2001). A proposed model of TQM implementation based on an empirical study of Malaysian industry. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management , 289.