Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Security Risks for Computers at Home Essay Example for Free

Security Risks for Computers at Home Essay Individuals commonly associate computer security risks exclusively with thoughts regarding computers in businesses and corporations. However, even for an average user, computer security risks are indeed present especially if a connection to the internet is present (Wang, 2003). To some, having risks in relation to the use of personal computers at home may not pertain to anything of serious consideration. In reality though, if one considers the multitude of tasks usually done using the home computer, which often contain important personal data, then security threats for a home computer may be more serious than it is commonly thought of (United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team [USCERT], 2001). Therefore, it is important to assess the potential security threats and methods of attack that are related to home computer security. As mentioned, security threats for the home computer are a reality. In this sense, there are indeed numerous examples of potential security threats especially if one has a connection to the internet and constantly uses the different functions of the web. Some of the most common forms of security threats to home computers are in the form of Trojan horse programs and back door programs. Trojan horse programs are tools in which malicious files are allowed entry to the system upon the placement of the Trojan horse which usually takes the form of something that may not seem harmful based on the evaluation of a common user (USCERT, 2001). Given such functions and features, it is very much apparent as to why Trojan horse programs are called as such. As previously pointed out, back door programs are also examples of programs that pose a threat to home computers. Characteristically, back door programs, which are also referred to as remote administration programs, provide other individuals the means to control the home computer through a network connection (USCERT, 2001). Other home computer security risks come in vastly different forms. For one, an attack termed as denial of service, allow other individuals to incapacitate a home computer by placing extreme amounts of stress upon it in terms of data processing; in addition, it is commonly taken into consideration that individuals that aim to attack other home computers usually take advantage of home computers that they have already compromised (USCERT, 2001). As previously pointed out, home computer users are probably not as skilled in terms of providing protection for their computers and their networks as compared to those that use computers in large businesses and firms. In this sense, unprotected networking shares may be considered as potential entry points used for placing and triggering different security threats; also packet sniffing may be used to take advantage of how private information are sent through a common network (USCERT, 2001). In addition, mobile codes such as Java, Javascript, and even ActiveX as well as cross site scripting, may be used to compromise home computers and the users. Specifically, personal information may easily be attained through such codes and scripts if one is not careful (USCERT, 2001). Individuals that aim to cause harm towards home computer users take into account some of the most common tasks accomplished through the use of the internet. As mentioned, codes and scripts may be used to the detriment of a user during the course of web browsing. Email spoofing and email borne viruses are two of the most common concerns regarding email and its relation to home computer security. While email spoofing may be a form of trickery so that the user may assume that the sender of the information is rather trustworthy and will hence not be cautious in his or her reply, email borne viruses use trickery as well but also uses malicious codes in the form of cleverly disguised as attachments to various types of messages which is made worse by the fact that hidden file extensions may be taken advantage of to make a virus appear to be harmless (USCERT, 2001). In addition, chat clients are also considered to be of potential risk. The main reason for such as consideration is that chat clients are highly similar to email in terms of function (USCERT, 2001). Given a varied assortment of types of security threats to home computers, one may already develop a sense of understanding as to how attackers gain information from a computer system. One method or technique used by attackers is through disguising a security threat as something that seems harmless, as it is quite expectable that even the average user has a sense of what is harmful if it is blatantly evident (Wang, 2003). From the previous discussion, such an approach may be observed from the distribution of Trojan horses, malicious code and scripts on websites, and email and chat client viruses. Expectedly, if the disguised program or code is transferred into the home computer and it is run, then personal information may then be transferred to the attacker. Aside from such an indirect approach, attackers may also use direct approaches in taking personal and important information. As exemplified by packet sniffing and network and computer access through previous placement of a malicious program or through identification and manipulation of weaknesses in security, attackers may use immense technical knowledge to directly select and acquire the information that they need such as credit card numbers (Wang, 2003). In general, it is made evident from the points discussed that home computers are also at risk due to the presence of different potential security risks as well as various ways in which attackers may use such security risks. Home computers that are connected to the internet may be seen both as a source of convenience for users but may also be perceived as a possible tool in which important information utilized by the user may be threatened. There are ways in which the negative aspects of home computing and security risks may be minimized by developing a better understanding of such security threats and methods of attack. Therefore, even for home computer users, broadening the level of knowledge regarding such issues of concern is certainly not a waste of time.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Capital Punishment Essay: Capital Punishment Targets the Poor

Capital Punishment Targets the Poor In some states, inmates can be executed for crimes they committed at the age of 16; in others, only those who committed murder at age 18 or older are eligible for the death penalty. This essay will demonstrate that such inconsistencies and many other factors cause a situation where the poor are consistently targeted by the death penalty.    Some states, but not all, ban the execution of people with mental retardation. Some states include felony murder (unpremeditated murder committed in the course of another crime such as robbery or burglary) as a capital crime; others do not. In the 29 states that have a sentence of life without parole, 23 have statutes that bar judges from letting jurors know they have that sentencing option. Since studies consistently show that when given a choice between a death sentence and a sentence of life without parole, most people will choose the latter, failure to inform a jury of this alternative is tantamount to sending more people to the execution chamber.    Social science research has discredited the claim that execution deters murder. The majority of murders are committed in the heat of passion, and/or under the influence of alcohol or drugs, when there is little thought given to the possible consequences of the act. "Hit men" and other murderers who plan their crimes beforehand, intend and expect to avoid punishment altogether by not getting caught.    Law enforcement officials know that the death penalty is not a deterrent. Imposing the death penalty more often was thought to be cost-effective by only 29% of 386 randomly selected U.S. police chiefs polled by Peter D. Hart Research Associates in 1995. States that have death p... ...ily as an alternative to the death penalty(Death).    In 45 states, laws allow life sentences for murder that severely limit or eliminate the possibility of parole. Thirteen states impose sentences without the possibility of parole for 25 - 40 years, and all but three of the states that use capital punishment also have the option of life imprisonment with no possibility of parole. Although it is often assumed that capital punishment is less costly than life imprisonment, the opposite is true: in terms of dollars, in terms of crime control, and in terms of morality.    Is there any other way to go than to oppose capital punishment? No.    WORKS CITED: Death Penalty Information Center  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ Stanford Law Review  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   

Monday, January 13, 2020

Dawn Muscroft Essay

The purpose of this report is to show an analysis of the role and responsibilities of teachers, incorporating some research topics including codes of practice, and also the boundaries and relationship between the teaching role and other professional roles. The report will also show the roles of initial and diagnostic assessments. My own role and responsibility in education and training Blatchford (2013) identifies that regarding professional conduct, a teacher is expected to show high standards, uphold public trust, act within the statutory frameworks, and have a proper and professional regard for ethos, policies and practices within the establishment in which they teach. As an Employability Skills Tutor, my roles and responsibilities can vary from session to session, although the fundamental rules apply daily. These include carrying out initial diagnostics, planning lessons, and preparing resources. Machin, Hindmarsh, Murray and Richardson (2013) identify that learner should be motivated by the teacher or tutor to develop both their ability and their aspirations to learn. Personally, I believe that my role is not just about the teaching of the subject matter. It goes a lot deeper into promoting social inclusions, working together, guidance and supporting each others ideas, and identifying individual needs. These are shown in the Teacher training cycle identified b y Ann Gravells (2012): Identification of need The need of the student is often gained through discussion, and through initial diagnostics relating to maths and English capabilities. The discussion between the learner and the teacher helps both parties to attain whether this is the right course, with the right materials and resource to succeed. Planning and Design One the identification of needs has been identified, then the planning and design of the individuals learning can begin. It is often a beneficial exercise to complete a learning style questionnaire suck as VAK, in order to identify the strongest learning styles and plan lesson to match those styles, such as kinaesthetic which is translated into ‘touching and doing’. Delivery/Facilitation Once a teacher is aware of the variation of learning styles with a class setting, then the delivery can be adapted to meet those styles to suit the lesson. If some learners prefer to be ‘hands on’, then a simple flipchart exercise can be agreed. This will also assist those who visual learners, as the flipchart can be presented back and also put on display, and these learners who are auditory learner’s can listen to the information presented back to them. Assessment Throughout the course, the teacher should be continually assessing the learners to ensure full understanding of the subject and the course work involved. This can be done in a number of ways, including small written work, looking at grammar and punctuation skills. Evaluation The teacher should also be continually evaluating the standard of the lesson, to see whether they are being successful in their approach to the class style of learning. Again, this should be adapted to reach all of the students. My learners have come onto the course as they have been unemployed for some time, and have often lost their confidence in their abilities and strengths. It is part of my role to instil those characteristics back into the learners, and guide them into the interview process. There are of course  boundaries that are in place Boundaries As a teacher or tutor, you must always maintain your boundaries. If learner sees you as more of a friend, then they may feel that they can push those boundaries with regards to lateness, inappropriate language, or general inappropriate behaviour. The boundaries between the teaching role and other professional roles are close together. For instance within other professions such as youth worker, the role becomes that of a mentor, guide and possible counsellor, and often learners can express themselves in a more ‘open’ manner. Within the nursing profession, the role becomes more of an observer for vital signs, listener, and carer. However, within the teaching role, there must be a clear boundary regarding ‘the relationship’. You are the leader, the one with the knowledge of the subject matter. Therefore, you should be ready to teach all students, and become involved in their ‘study life’ whilst maintaining and appropriate distance from their Ã¢â‚¬Ë œout of study life’. Relationships The relationship between the teacher and the learner should always remain professional. In the world of technology such as Facebook, it would be unsuitable for the teacher and the learner to become involved in each other’s personal lives, as this can impact into the teaching or any potential disciplinary processes than may need to be addressed. Before any actual classroom teaching can take place, initial and diagnostic assessments must be carried out. These are paramount in agreeing individual learning goals, and planning the progression of the learner with the teacher. Initial Assessment From the very beginning of the course, teachers should begin to analyse their learners through initial assessment methods. The assessments best suited to  guide improvements in student learning are quizzes, tests, writing assignments, and other assessments such as a group activity. These can easily give the teacher/tutor an insight into the learning needs of the learners. Also self-assessments such as the VAK (Visual, Auditory, and Kinaesthetic) learning styles questionnaire can also highlight the learner’s preferences to learning, as well as highlighting their understanding of the course that they are undertaking. Diagnostic Assessment bksb ® is the UK’s most popular online Functional Skills Solution. Last year, over 1.2 million individual learners used bksb to improve their Functional Skills in English, maths and ICT. In the 19 year history, over 25 million learners have benefitted from our easy-to-use online assessments and learning resources. This type of diagnostic assessment is useful within the teaching arena, as it highlights areas where the learner would benefit from extra support, or further training. During some courses, the initial and diagnostics assessments can be varied. My own experience of both initial and diagnostic assessments has been mixed as a reviewing tool. During spelling tests and grammatical sheets that needed writing on, my learning style as a visual learner was put to use, as I could read and re read the paper, and check the work that I had completed in both the English and the mathematical pieces. However, when it came to the bksb diagnostics, I felt more rigid and nervous, as I also had to concentrate on my hand eye coordination, moving the mouse to where the correct section should be, the classroom environment that I was in during the session, and a number of distractions from others. I feel that the bksb did not build my self-confidence and this can be detrimental in some cases. Each learner will have their own learning style and it is the role of the teacher to adjust these diagnostics to meet all learners’ requirements. There are a number of legislation requirements for people within the education sector, and below lists some of those points: Health and Safety The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, describes duties of employers and employees. The most important is to make safe a place of work. The main rules are: to take care and not to injure yourself and others. to teach people to recognize symbols of danger to make safe place of work/ safe accesses to and from place of work to supply free protective equipment to have risk assessment to have general safe policy to ensure safe in areas of specific kind of risk like chemical, electrical, biological, physical area to ensure lit and ventilation to report injuries and near misses to follow special regulation like: COSHH factsheet, fire extinguishers factsheet, risk assessment factsheet, safety signs factsheet Equality and Diversity All organisations and teaching establishments now have an obligation to ensure equality and diversity is paramount to all learners. Acas (the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service), has a number of publications regarding the Equality Act 2010, and highlights the following protected characteristics: *Age *Gender Reassignment *Disability *Marriage and Civil Partnership *Pregnancy and Maternity *Race *Religion or Belief *Sex *Sexual Orientation The characteristics are protected against any form of discrimination. The implications for the teacher Data Protection The data Protection Act 1974 covers a wide range of confidentiality issues. However, within the teaching sector the points most relevant are: You must only collect information that you need for a specific reason The information must be kept secure The information should be relevant and up to date Safeguarding Dearne Valley College, quote the following within their policy (Ref S) : ‘Section 175 of the Education Act (2002) which requires FE colleges to make arrangements to ensure their functions are carried out in ways that ensure the safeguarding and welfare of children and young people, taking into account the guidance issued by the Secretary of State in considering what arrangements they need to make. Children Act (2004) Section 11 places a duty on local authorities and any person providing services in pursuance of section 74 of the Education and Skills Act 2008 to make arrangements with relevant agencies to cooperate to safeguard and promote the welfare of children (ie people under the age of 18). Every Child Matters: Change for Children (2004) set out the national framework for change programmes to build services around the needs of children and young people to maximise opportunity and minimise risk. Working Together to Safeguard Children (Dept for Education March 2013) states that all agencies and individuals should proactively aim to safeguard and promote the welfare of children so that the need for action to protect children from harm is reduced. Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act (HM Government 2006) provides legislative framework for the vetting and barring scheme for those working with children and vulnerable adults. It is the government’s response to Recommendation 19 of the Bichard enquiry 2004. Safeguarding Children and Safer Recruitment in Education (Dept for Education 15/10/12) this is the updated version which looks at the recruitment and selection process. The Disclosure and Barring Service (HM Government website 15/11/13) sets out the guidelines of the scheme which aims to prevent unsuitable people from undertaking certain paid or volunteer work with children or vulnerable adults ‘No Secrets’ Guidance (HM Government 2000 reviewed 2009) and related South Yorkshire policy Safer practice, safer learning (NIACE December 2007)’ Human Rights Citizens of the UK have certain fundamental human rights which government and public authorities are legally obliged to respect. These became law as part of the Human Rights Act 1998. Some of the most applicable human rights in a teaching environment are: the right to life (respect commitments of learners) freedom from degrading treatment (disrespecting learners) the right to liberty (freedom of expression within social limits) the right not to be discriminated against (promoting diversity and equal opportunity) the right to an education (the right to a fair education) Codes of Practice The institute for Learning, or IFL as it is better known, is the independent, member-led professional body for teachers, trainers, tutors, assessors and other professionals working across a variety of sectors, including sixth form colleges, further education colleges, and work based learning. It holds a multitude of information regarding teaching practice, and has a number of resources within the website. Teaching staff can learn about mew policies as they change, and can become members of the IFL. The IFL code of practice came into force in 2008. This covers the following points: Integrity Respect Care Practice Disclosure Responsibility As with all the above legislative requirements, the consequences to both the tutor and the student could be catastrophic. For instance, should a learner be having personal issues such as abuse, and is not performing the tasks or work set in the classroom, then it is the tutors responsibility to ensure that they address the issue with the leaner in an empathetic and confidential way, thus getting to the core of the problem, and not assuming that the student does not have the capability to do the work. Misreading any signs of such behaviour could result in the student become more and more withdrawn and possibly losing their place at the teaching establishment, purely based on the lack of support he or she has received. The initial training and on-going publications within the teaching establishment will enable the tutor to understand and comprehend the signs of any behavioural issues, whilst maintaining their knowledge of the legal requirements when teaching a class. Bibliography Acas – BKSB Blachford, R. (2013) The 2012 Teachers’ standards in the classroom. London. Sage Learning Matters. Dearne Valley College –, Every Child Matters – – – – – – – – - Gravells, A. (2012). Preparing to teach in the lifelong learning Sector. 5th ed. London. Sage Learning Matters. IFL Machin, L, Hindmarsh. D, Murray, S. Richardson, T. (2013) A complete guide to the level 4 certificate in Education. 1st ed. At Albans. Critical Publishing Ltd. Wilson,L.((2014)Practical Teaching, A Guide to teaching in the education and training sector. Andover, Hampshire. Cengage Learning.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The War Of The Vietnam War Essay - 1753 Words

VIETNAM WAR Gordon Gabriel History 222: Final Paper December 11, 2016 When I was choosing a topic for this paper I thought of many significant events within United States history during the time period we covered during the last few weeks, but there is one event that has always had my interest. That is the Vietnam War, more specifically not only the war overseas, but the war that was going on right here at home. For the remainder of my paper, I will be discussing about three major points relating to the Vietnam War. I will be talking about the life of an American solider fighting in Vietnam, the life of that soldier’s family, and the life of the average United States citizen. The life of an American soldier serving in Vietnam was unimaginable, on the battlefield and at home. In the early stages of the war, it was said that America would only be involved a short time. Solider suicide during the Vietnam era was at an all-time high . As I was doing research on the life of a Vietnam Solider I watched a documentary called â€Å"Vi etnam: Homecoming†. During the Vietnam War, most of America wanted the war to end and was not happy with the American solider and the government. Due to America’s disapproval, American soldiers were not greeted with welcoming arms. This event that the documentary shows gives the Vietnam veteran the welcome they never got. The documentary interviews several Vietnam vets and many of their experiences, and things they had to say were all too similar.Show MoreRelatedThe War Of Vietnam And The Vietnam War1525 Words   |  7 PagesThe war in Vietnam is The United States and other capitalist bloc countries supported South Vietnam (Republic of Vietnam) against the support by the Soviet Union and other socialist bloc countries of North Vietnam (Democratic Republic of Vietnam) and the Vietcong of war. Which occurred during the Cold War of Vietnam (main battlefield), Laos, and Cambodia. This is the biggest and longtime war in American history during the 1960s (Best 2008). It is a lso the most significant war after World War IIRead MoreThe War Of The Vietnam War1475 Words   |  6 Pageson one such event, the Vietnam War, came from entertainment-based programs and the play Miss Saigon. Despite heavy coverage in such well-known comedic films as Forrest Gump and Good Morning Vietnam, the true events were anything but a laugh for those involved. In spite of the relative recentness of the events in Vietnam, many of today’s youths know little about the topic. The events in Vietnam raise the ever-present question on the ethics of third party involvement in a war otherwise unrelated toRead MoreThe War Of The Vietnam War1729 Words   |  7 Pagesspread of communism all around the world. This is what lead to the gruesome war that lasted over a decade in Vietnam. A great deal of social changed happened all over the world, but particularly in America as the Vietnam War dragged on. As people became more aware of the atrocities going on in Southeast Asia, the end less domestic support turned into widespread explosive protest. During the first few years of the Vietnam conflict, Americans full heartedly supported the United States and its governmentRead MoreThe War Of The Vietnam War1379 Words   |  6 Pagestensions over the Vietnam war caused many americans to become divided on the actions taken by the government across seas. Americans questioned whether the government could be trusted. The feeling of betrayal and government secrecy created the â€Å"Credibility Gap,† in which many americans believed that the government no longer was for the people, but for anything else that would benefit the government. The Vietnam War exacerbated the gap between the pro-war traditionalists and anti-war liberals along withRead MoreThe War Of The Vietnam War1430 Words   |  6 Pagesended in 1989, the Vietnam war is still being fought, but on a different battlefield, one of public opinion. Some call this war an atrocity, a war the United States should never have joined. Others call it a crime, committed by the power hungry politicians of the U.S. Now that new information from both sides of the war has surfaced and the wounds of battle have had more time to heal there is yet another opinion emerging. The Vietnam War was in fact only one of many proxy wars fought under the umbrellaRead MoreThe War Of The Vietnam War1155 Words   |  5 PagesThe Vietnam War cost many Americans their lives in the 60s and 70s. Many were drafted into the war by choice and others selectively chosen to join to help America. The contributions made had a major impact on the American side of the Vietnam War. Though many contributions were made none stand out any more than others. It is sometimes said there is always a hero in the war who helped the victory. Wars, however, do not have war heroes because a hero is making an undeniable contribution to the war andRead MoreThe War Of The Vietnam War1592 Words   |  7 PagesThe Vietnam War was said to be one of the most significant wars in the twentieth century. This w ar took place from November 1, 1955 to April 30, 1975. It was at the time, the longest war in American history. Much of the conflict was centered in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. During that time, approximately 58,219 US troops were killed in action. The reason America got involved in the Vietnam War was to stop the spread of communism in South East Asia and beyond. â€Å"America’s involvement in Vietnam derivedRead MoreThe War Of The Vietnam War1204 Words   |  5 Pagesus†¦ When that is the way you are, how do you conduct your life?† The Vietnam War killed over fifty eight thousand Americans and over 61% of the men killed were 21 years or younger. Most Americans are conflicted with the fact whether the Anti War Movement played a factor in prolonging the Vietnamese War. â€Å"In every story there are two sides and in between lies the truth.† Anonymous The United States become involved in Vietnam after the French withdrew when the Republican President Dwight EisenhowerRead MoreThe War Of The Vietnam War877 Words   |  4 PagesAnother big difference in this war was that the Vietnam War was had more disapproval and was more expressive within the American public, unlike the Korean War. The ANITWAR MOVEMENT started in the 1960s this group was never enacted until this era. There was not a group like this in Vietnam, but there were many groups that opposed the war. The main object of these revolts was the American military presence in Indochina. The ANITWAR MOVEMENT caused an influence not only socially, but also in the realmRead MoreThe War Of The Vietnam War1421 Words   |  6 PagesIn July and August of 1972, Jane Fonda made radio broadcasts from Hanoi that changed the way Americans thought of the Vietnam war and of her. To this day, many people view her as a traitor and criticise her actions in Vietnam; however, some people we re truly inspired by her words and what she had to say. Despite people s personal opinions, Fonda was a powerful speaker and knew how to convey her message to her audience. She tried to convince people that the American government and military were the