Monday, May 27, 2019
Researched Guidelines and Types of Interviews Essay
converseAn reference is a conversation between two or more people where questions are rented by the oppugner to elicit facts or statements from the discourseee. Although interviews are a standard part of journalism and media reporting, the focus of this piece is on how interviews stop be use as a tool for psychological research.Interviews are itemly useful for getting the story behind a participants experiences. The interviewer scum bag pursue in-depth information around a study. Interviews may be useful as look out-up to certain respondents to questionnaires, e.g., to further investigate their responses. Usually open-ended questions are get hold on ofed during interviews.Before you start to design your interview questions and process, clearly articulate to yourself what problem or need is to be addressed using the information to be gathered by the interviews. This helps you keep clear focus on the intent of each question.Preparation for Interview1. Choose a setting with little distraction. quash loud lights or noises, look the interviewee is comfortable (you might beseech them if they are), etc. Often, they may feel more comfortable at their own places of work or homes. 2. Explain the purpose of the interview.3. Address wrong of confidentiality. Note whatsoever terms of confidentiality. (Be careful here. Rarely can you absolutely promise anything. Courts may get b other to information, in certain circumstances.) Explain who will get access to their answers and how their answers will be analyse. If their comments are to be used as quotes, get their written licence to do so. 4. Explain the format of the interview. Explain the type of interview you are conducting and its nature. If you neediness them to ask questions, specify if theyre to do so as they hand over them or wait until the end of the interview. 5. Indicate how long the interview usually takes.6. Tell them how to get in touch with you later if they want to. 7. Ask them if they ge t down any questions before you both get started with the interview. 8. Dont count on your memory to recall their answers. Ask for permission to record the interview or bring along some wholeness to take notes. Sequence of Questions1. Get the respondents involved in the interview as soon as possible. 2. Before asking to the highest degree controversial matters (such as feelings and conclusions), first ask about some facts. With this approach, respondents can more easily engage in the interview before warming up to more personal matters. 3. Intersperse fact-based questions throughout the interview to avoid long lists of fact-based questions, which tends to leave respondents disengaged. 4. Ask questions about the present before questions about the past or future. Its usually easier for them to talk about the present and then work into the past or future. 5. The break questions might be to allow respondents to provide any other information they prefer to add and their impressions of the interview.Wording of Questions1. Wording should be open-ended. Respondents should be able to choose their own terms when answering questions. 2. Questions should be as neutral as possible. Avoid wording that might influence answers, e.g., evocative, judgmental wording. 3. Questions should be asked unrivalled at a snip.4. Questions should be worded clearly. This take ons knowing any terms particular to the program or the respondents culture. 5. Be careful asking why questions. This type of question infers a cause-effect relationship that may not truly exist. These questions may also cause respondents to feel defensive, e.g., that they have to justify their response, which may inhibit their responses to this and future questions.Conducting Interview1. Occasionally verify the tape recorder (if used) is working. 2. Ask one question at a time. 3. Attempt to remain as neutral as possible. That is, wear downt show strong emotional reactions to their responses. Patton suggests to ac t as if youve heard it all before. 4. Encourage responses with occasional nods of the head, uh huhs, etc. 5. Be careful about the seemance when note taking. That is, if you jump to take a note, it may appear as if youre surprised or very pleased about an answer, which may influence answers to future questions.6. Provide transition between major topics, e.g., weve been public lecture about (some topic) and now Id standardized to move on to ( some other topic). 7. Dont lose control of the interview. This can occur when respondents stray to another topic, take so long to answer a question that times begins to run out, or even begin asking questions to the interviewer.Immediately After Interview1. Verify if the tape recorder, if used, worked throughout the interview. 2. Make any notes on your written notes, e.g., to clarify any scratchings, ensure pages are numbered, fill out any notes that tiret limit senses, etc. 3. Write down any observations made during the interview. For examp le, where did the interview occur and when, was the respondent particularly nervous at any time? Were there any surprises during the interview? Did the tape recorder break?Types of Interviews1. Informal, conversational interview no predetermined questions are asked, in order to remain as open and adaptable as possible to the interviewees nature and priorities during the interview, the interviewer goes with the flow. 2. General interview guide approach the guide approach is intended to ensure that the homogeneous general areas of information are collected from each interviewee this provides more focus than the conversational approach, but still allows a degree of freedom and adaptability in getting information from the interviewee.3. Standardized, open-ended interview here, the same open-ended questions are asked to all interviewees (an open-ended question is where respondents are free to choose how to answer the question, i.e., they dont select yes or no or provide a numeric rat ing, etc.) this approach facilitates faster interviews that can be more easily analyzed and compared. 4. Closed, fixed-response interview where all interviewees are asked the same questions and asked to choose answers from among the same set of alternatives. This format is useful for those not practiced in interviewing.Types of Topics in QuestionsPatton notes six kinds of questions. wholeness can ask questions about 1. Behaviors about what a person has done or is doing2. Opinions/values about what a person thinks about a topic 3. Feelings note that respondents sometimes respond with I think so be careful to note that youre looking for feelings 4. Knowledge to get facts about a topic5. Sensory about what people have seen, touched, heard, tasted or smelled 6. Background/demographics standard terra firma questions, such as age, education, etc. Note that the above questions can be asked in terms of past, present or future.Kinds of Interview1. Informational InterviewThe objecti ve of this interview is to ask for advice and learn more about a particular flight field, employer or particular job. Interviewing experts in their field is one more way to become more occupationally literate. The knowledge that you gain here will make you a sharper and more informed. You will also make a contact and further develop your network.2. Screening or Telephone InterviewA phone interview is a very cost effective way to screen scenes. These can last anywhere from 10 to 30 minutes. You should prepare for it like an open book exam. It is recommended that you have in front of you your resume, the job description, a list of references, some prepared answers to challenging questions and perhaps something about the company. The vast mass of confabulation is non-verbal. Because they cant see your body language, it is critically important to have positive and polished answers with energetic tone and inflection. Be sure to ask what the next step is.3. Individual InterviewThis is the most common type and often called a personal interview. It is typically a one-on-one exchange at the organizations offices. In order to trump out prepare you will want to know the length of the interview which can usually range from 30 to 90 minutes. If the interview is 30 minutes you have to be concise and have a high impact with your answers. If it is 60 or 90 minutes you will want to go into much more depth and use specific examples to support your generalizations.4. Small Group or Committee InterviewThis is where you will be impact with several decision-makers at once. This can be an intimidating experience if you are not prepared. Its an efficient way to interview candidates and allows for different interpretations or perceptions of the same answer. Be sure to make eye contact with everyone, no matter who asked the question. Its important to establish rapport with each member of the interview team. screen to find out the names and job titles of the participants.5. The e ndorsement or On-Site InterviewAfter your first interview, you may be asked back again for a second date. They like you enough that you made the first round of cuts, but they would like to know more about you before making their final decision. Second Interviews can last either a half or full-day so it is best to check again and get an agenda. You may be meeting with 3 to five individuals. This may include a representative from Human Resources, the department head, the office staff and the department heads supervisor. Be alert and animated at all times The more you know about the structure of the process, the less anxious you are going to feel and the better you will perform. This is the last step before an offer is made.6. Behavioral-Based InterviewThe theory behind Critical Behavioral Interviewing (CBI) is that past performance in a similar situation is the best predictor of future performance. CBI probes much deeper than traditional interviewing techniques. You should prepare b y thinking of specific examples that demonstrate your competence in core behaviors such as teamwork, problem-solving, communication, creativity, flexibility and organizational skills. You will want to tell your story and structure it by stating your answers in terms of the situation, the task, what action you took, and what was the result or outcome.7. Task Oriented or Testing InterviewThis is a problem-solving interview where you will be given some exercises to demonstrate your creative and analytical abilities. A company may ask you to take a short test to evaluate your technical knowledge and skills. Sometimes a presentation to a group is necessary to determine your communication skills. Try to relax as much as possible.8. Stress InterviewDuring this rare type, the interviewer tries to bait you, to see how you will respond. The objective is to find your weaknesses and test how you hold up to pressure. Such tactics as weird silences, constant interruptions and challenging interro gation with antagonistic questions are designed to push your boundaries. The question you have to ask yourself is Do I want to work for a company that treats me this way even before the offer is made? Rethink the corporate culture.Different Types of Interviewsone-to-one InterviewThis is the most common type of Interview. In the One-to-one interview the candidate for employment meets directly with the interviewer.Phone InterviewPhone Interviews are decent increasingly popular among large corporations who are conducting a mass-hiring of employees. These interviews are conducted entirely over the phone and eliminate bias that may arise from a candidates appearance, mannerisms, or ethnicity. Often times, phone interview questions are structured and the question are behavioral in nature to further eliminate bias. When preparing for a phone interview you should follow all of the steps listed above including getting dressed for the interview. Studies have shown that people who dress profe ssionally for a phone interview will perform better than those dressed casually.Group interviewIn the group interview style you will be interviewing simultaneously with two or three other candidates all vying for the same position. In this interview style one or more applicants may be asked the same question or the pool of applicants can be broken into teams to determine a solution to a problem posed by the interviewer. This style of interviewing is most common in the technology fields or any field where group cohesiveness is of extreme importance. The best way to prepare for a group interview is to follow the steps listed above.Panel InterviewA panel interview involves three or more members of the hiring organization meeting simultaneously with the person being considered for the position. This interview style is most common in academia or when hiring a senior level corporate executive. The term search committee is commonly used to describe a Panel Interview. In preparing for a pan el interview it is best to understand an organization from every point of view. For example, if you are going to be interviewed by an organizations Customer Service Manager, Finance Manager, and Human Resources Manager you should familiarize yourself with current information about the organizations customer service policies, finance policies, and HR policies.Mock InterviewThe Mock Interview allows prospective job candidates to practice their interviewing skills in a simulated interview environment. Mock interviews provide positive feedback to the participants to enhance job prospects by improving interview skills.Career fair interviewA conversation during a career fair can be considered a screening interview. It is generally, 2-10 minutes in length with a human resources representative or a technical manager in your field. If mutual refer is established, it is likely you will be invited for further interviews.Because your meeting is brief, you will need to make an immediate positi ve impression. Research the employer and be prepared to match your background and interests to their needs.Site interviewThe site interview takes place at the employers site. It is a selection interview, following a successful screening interview (phone, career fair, on-campus). This is very good news for you since you are now 50% closer to a job offer. There is however, still work to doClarify the dilate of the visit in advance (date, location, length of visit, travel arrangements, suggested attire, expenses.) You may be scheduled for a half or full day of interviews, which may include a meal, a tour of the facility, and an overnight stay.To prepare for a site visit, conduct in-depth research on the employer and their location. Dress professionally and arrive 15-20 minutes early. fetch ten copies of your resume, reference list (graduating students), and unofficial transcript. If you have a portfolio or sample of your work, bring it with you. Behavioral Interview (Behavior based I nterviewing or Structured Interviews) A structured interview is a type of interview that is utilized by many larger organizations.This interview is especially popular when there is more than one of the same position available within the organization. In a structured interview every applicant for the position is asked the same questions as every other applicant applying for the position. A structured interview may contain standard interview questions, behavioral interview questions, or a combination of the two.