Tuesday, April 9, 2019
IB Chemistry Lab Design - compare the effect of temperature on the concentrations of Vitamin C and Vitamin A in solution Essay Example for Free
IB Chemis analyse Lab Design comp atomic number 18 the effect of temperature on the concentrations of Vitamin C and Vitamin A in event EssayResearch QuestionTo compare the effect of temperature on the concentrations of Vitamin C and Vitamin A in theme.Background InformationMany researchers claim that the vitamin content in the food we eat decreases as we cook the food, since it is beingness exposed to high temperatures. This re all in ally intrigued me since cooking is one of my hobbies, and I always try and check the nutritional value of meals that I cook.With this in mind, it was quintessential for me to see for myself if these claims hold true. To narrow the circumstance of the investigation, I chose Vitamins A and C to do this study upon.The claims state that the enzyme in whose form Vitamin C is found, gets modify (or oxidised) at temperatures over 70C as well as at low temperatures, in the freezer. Also, studies claim that Vitamin A (in the form of retinol) gets oxid ised at high temperatures, during cooking. Once these vitamins get oxidised, they are muddled to us. This investigation give compare the effects of high temperature on Vitamin A and Vitamin C roots.http//chemmovies.unl.edu/chemistry/smallscale/SSGifs/SS054Ascorbic.gifThe ascorbic tart enzyme gets denatured at high temperatures beca consumption the tertiary structure of the protein, which the enzyme is made up of, unravels, ca apply the active situation of the enzyme to change in shape. This leads to the substrate being unable to fit into the active site, and we say that the enzyme is denatured. This denaturing give the bounce engross place at extremes of pH too.The Vitamin A (retinol) gets oxidised because, at high temperatures, it reacts with oxygen in the line of business to form a carboxylic red-hot (retinoic blistering).In the laboratory, ascorbic sulfurous found in fruits and vegetables can be simulated by adding ascorbic blistering crystals to water system, to form a mildly acidic solution. This solution can in like manner be used as the model solution during titration to find concentration of ascorbic acid. To simulate Vitamin A, we can evidently add retinol to water to form a monetary standard solution.HypothesisAt higher temperatures, some(prenominal) the concentration of Vitamin C and Vitamin A can be expected to decrease. However, I expect the decrease to be greater in the case of the Vitamin C solution since (having protein-like properties) it is more sensitive to extremes of temperature. Also, the alcohol retinol has a high boiling point, so I believe that it will be more resistant to oxidation too. variable quantitysIndependent VariableWhy and How it is ChangedTemperature to which the Vitamin C/A solution is changeThe factor whose effect is being studied on the concentration of Vitamin C/A in a solution is the temperature the solution is heated to. Therefore, the temperature is the independent variable. In order to change the tem perature, equal quantities of the same Vitamin C/A solution are heated to different temperatures. The different temperatures taken are 30C, 50C, 70C and 90C. As a admit, one solution is fixed at path temperature. A thermometer is used to notice the temperature of the solution. Investigation at each temperature will be repeated 3 times, to visit reliability.Dependent VariableWhy and How it is RecordedConcentration of Vitamin C/A in solution (in mol dm-3), subsequently word picture to temperatureThe effect of temperature on the concentration of Vitamin C/A in a solution is being studied, consequently the concentration is the dependent variable. As the temperature moves further away from room temperature (above or below) the concentration of Vitamin C/A in the solution should decrease due to denaturing or oxidation. The concentration of Vitamin C is visualized by doing an one titration. A starch solution is added to a standard Vitamin C solution which is the titrant. Into th is, a solution of kelvin iodide and potassium iodate is titrated till a blue colour in is obtained (end point). This is repeated thrice. The average mountain of atomic number 53 solution used is calculated, and divided by the concentration of Vitamin C.Then, the solutions of unknown concentrations are titrated and unitary method is used to calculate their concentrations. The concentration of Vitamin A is calculated apply a redox titration. This is do work by making a solution of acid dichromate, potassium iodide and starch. This is titrated against a solution of sodium thiosulfate of known concentration. The volume of thiosulfate used is noted. Then, the Vitamin A solutions are added to a similar solution of dichromate, KI and starch, and titration is carried out with thiosulfate. For every 1 less inguen of thiosulfate used there is 0.25 mole of alcohol in the sample (according to the chemical equations) which was tested.Controlled VariableWhy and How it is keeppH of Vitami n solutionExtremes of pH can also lead to the denaturing of enzymes, so if pH changes it will interrupt with the results, potentially giving unfaithful results. Thus, the pH needs to be kept a constant. This can be done by adding a few drops of acidic buffer to the initial solution.Presence of AntioxidantsAntioxidants including salts such as sodium chloride tend to protect ascorbic acid from being oxidised, and thus their presence may lead to inaccurate results. Thus, they need to be eliminated. This can be done by using distilled water (without any salts) fleck preparing the solution of ascorbic acid.Head Space Present in SystemThe ascorbic acid gets denatured because of oxidation by air. Thus, if the volume of air present in the system changes, the results will also change invariably. To prevent this, the get of head space present in the system must be kept constant. This can be done by placing a lid on top of the beaker in which the acid solution is heated. sign Concentration of Ascorbic Acid solutionIf the initial concentration of ascorbic acid in the solution is different, indeed the last-place concentration will also be instilled. This can be avoided by adding the same mass of ascorbic acid to the same volume of water while preparing all the sample solutions.Volume of Ascorbic Acid solutionThe volume of acid solution used for each temperature and each trial should be the same since oppositewise it will affect the volume of iodine solution used. Therefore, the volume has to be measured accurately using a pipette for each temperature and trial (each titration).Concentration of starch, potassium iodide and potassium iodate solutionsThe concentration of any of these solutions will affect the volume of solution titrated during each trial. Thus, it needs to be kept a constant. This can be done by ensuring that equal masses of these reagents are added to equal volumes of water, for all the trials.Final temperature of solutionThe final temperature of the solution may affect the concentration of the acid in the solution, as rapid heating and cooling can encourage oxidation. Thus, to avoid errors, the solutions will be allowed to rest till they reach room temperature, and only then will they be titrated to calculate concentration.Chemicals1. L-ascorbic acid 3.52 g to make 1 dm3 of 0.002 M solution of acid1. Glucose 50 g to add to acid solution, to simulate fruit juice1. Potassium Iodide 10.0 g to make 1 dm3 iodine solution1. Potassium Iodate 0.536 g to make 1 dm3 iodine solution1. stiffen (soluble) 0.25 g to make 50 ml of 0.5% starch solution1. 3.00 M Sulphuric Acid 60 ml to add to iodine solution1. Distilled Water To make all the solutions and washingOther Materials1. advisement Scale1. Bunsen Burner1. Tripod Stand1. Wire Gauze1. Mortar and Pestle1. Pipette Filler1. palpebra (for beaker) 41. ThermometerProcedurePreparing Ascorbic Acid Solution of concentration 0.002 M1. streak 3.52 g of L-ascorbic acid using the unhurri edness scale and the weighing boat (which has to be completely dry).1. Place the weighed crystals in the mortar and use the pestle to crush the crystals into a fine powder, to aid with dissolving it in water.1. Place the powdered acid into a 500 ml beaker and add a little distilled water to dissolve the acid. Use the meth rod to stir.1. Once it seems that the acid has fully dissolved, add some more water to the solution, to ensure that all the acid has actually dissolved. Then, transfer the solution into the 1000 ml standard flask using a washed funnel and the glass rod.1. Wash the beaker with water and pour into standard flask, to remove any rest solution. Repeat this process 3 times.1. Wash the funnel and the glass rod, letting the water run into the standard flask.1. Make up the solution to the 1000 ml accentuate. Place the stopper and mix the solution thoroughly. air approximately 500 ml of this solution to the 500 ml beaker, for ease of use.Preparing the 0.5 % starch solutio n1. Measure 0.25 g of starch using the weighing scale and weighing boat.1. Bring 50 ml of distilled water nearly to a boil, and then add the measured quantity of starch powder to it. Allow to cool.Preparing the unity Solution1. Measure 10.0 g of potassium iodide and 0.536 g of potassium iodate using the weighing scale and weighing boat. rapture this to a 500 ml beaker.1. Dissolve the solids in approximately 400 ml of distilled water. spat using the glass rod, to aid in dissolving. Add the 60 ml of 3.00 M sulphuric acid to the solution at this point.1. Once it seems that the solids welcome fully dissolved, add some more water to the solution, to ensure that all of it has actually dissolved. Then, transfer the solution into a 1000 ml standard flask, using a washed funnel and the glass rod.1. Wash the beaker with water and pour into standard flask, to remove any stay solution. Repeat this process 3 times.1. Wash the funnel and the glass rod, letting the water run into the standard flask.1. Make up the solution to the 1000 ml mark. Place the stopper and mix the solution thoroughly. Transfer approximately 500 ml of this solution to a 500 ml beaker, for ease of use.Titration Set-up and Final step1. Transfer 65 ml of Vitamin C solution each into 5, 250 ml beakers.1. Keep one of the containers in a trough containing melting ice (0C). Keep one at room temperature (as a control + standard solution). Heat the other three to 30C, 60C and 90C respectively. construe that all the beakers are covered with a lid during heating or cooling.1. Wash the pipette, first using tap water and then distilled water. Rinse the pipette thoroughly with the Vitamin C solution at room temperature.1. Use a pipette to transfer 20 ml of the Vitamin C solution, at room temperature, into a conic flask. This is the standard solution (and the control) since its concentration is known (0.002 M).1. Add 10 drops of the starch solution to the conical flask. Swirl the contents to mix properly.1. Wa sh the burette with tap water followed by distilled water. Then, rinse the burette with the iodine solution.1. Fill the burette with iodine solution till the 0.0 ml mark.1. Titrate the iodine solution into the conical flask, swirling the conical flask at all times. The end point is reached when a blue colour is obtained that persists even after 20 seconds of swirling. Note down the volume of iodine solution used.1. Re-fill the burette to the 0.0 ml mark. Repeat the titration process 2 more times. Note down these two values for volume of iodine solution used as well. Calculate the average volume used.1. Check that all the solutions that were heated (or cooled) have reached room temperature, with the help of a thermometer.1. If they have reached room temperature, repeat the entire titration process (steps 18 24) with the other 4 solution (0C, 30C, 60C and 90C). Ensure that the burette is re-filled to the 0.0 ml mark after each and every titration, and that the pipette is first washed , and then rinsed with the solution that is going to be placed in the conical flask.1. Use unitary method, to calculate the concentration of Vitamin C in each solution, after heating or cooling, using the concentration of the solution at room temperature (0.002 M) as the known value.